Benedito Calixto (1853–1927), Title Domingos Jorge Velho
The Bandeirantes are Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters. Who lead expeditions called bandeiras which penetrated the interior of the State of Brazil.
Originally aimed to capture and force Indigenous Americans into slavery, the bandeirantes have begun to focus their expeditions on finding gold, silver, and diamond mines. As they ventured into unmapped regions in search of profit and adventure, they expanded the effective borders of the Brazilian colony.
The São Paulo settlement serves as the home base for the most famous bandeirantes.
A religiopolitical sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest turned druid Bogomil five hundred years ago as a response to the introduction of feudalism and as a form of political movement and opposition to the Bulgarian state and the church.
The Bogomils call for a return to druidic teaching, rejecting the clerical hierarchy, and their primary political tendencies are a resistance to the state and church authorities. Their movement has spread quickly in the Balkans, gradually expanding throughout the Byzantine Empire and later reaching Kievan Rus', Bosnia, Dalmatia, Rascia, Italy, and France. The Bogomils do not build churches because they revere their considered the natural world to be their temple.
Brethren of the Coast
The Carbonari ( "charcoal burners") are groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in Italy. They have further influenced other revolutionary groups in France, Spain, Portugal and Russia.
Council For Foreign Relations
Cult of Mithras
Mithraism, also known as the Mythraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centred around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire. The religion was inspired by Persian worship of the god Mithra. The mysteries were popular in the Roman military.
Worshippers of Mithras have a complex system of initiation meeting in underground temples. The cult is centred in Rome.
Friends of the ABC
Description: Reunião dos Amigos do ABC. Les Misérables, Frederic Lix (1830–1897)
The Friends of the ABC is an association of revolutionary French republican students. Their members represent a wide variety of political viewpoints, ranging from communist agitation to advocacy for democracy to supporting the levellers and more, but they all join the popular insurrection known as the June Rebellion and organize the construction of a massive barricade. Marius Pontmercy attaches himself to the group without becoming one of them.
An idler from a peasant background who connects the Friends of the ABC with similar societies. He is described as having "daring waistcoats and scarlet opinions". Bahorel is a student in his eleventh year at the time of his introduction, though he does not care for the law school. His motto is "never a lawyer."
On the way to build a barricade in the June Rebellion, Bahorel gains the attention of Gavroche due to his bold behavior.
Combeferre "The Guide"
Representing the philosophy of the revolution, he "completes and corrects" Enjolras. An intellectual, Combeferre advocates for societal and scientific progress. In contrast to Enjolras, whom one “would have liked to fight under”, it is mentioned that one would prefer to “march behind” him.
Courfeyrac (also de Courfeyrac) – “The Center”
Courfeyrac is compared with Tholomyes, Fantine’s lover featured earlier in the novel; however, contrary to Tholomyes, Courfeyrac is honorable and loyal. Alongside Combeferre “The Guide” and Enjolras “The Chief”, Courfeyrac is described as “The Center” on account of his warm and radiant personality. He is Marius Pontmercy’s closest companion.
An orphaned fan maker who taught himself to read and write. He has great interest in foreign affairs and history, and he is described to have “adopted the people”. He has a particular interest for Poland, shouting "Long live Poland!" while marching to the barricades. He is the only workingman among the named members of the Friends of the ABC, and is revered by Enjolras.
A sceptic with no interest in revolution. Grantaire is involved with the Friends of the ABC due to his friendship with its members and his admiration, veneration and love for Enjolras, who disdains him for his skepticism and drunkenness.
He is noted to be extraordinarily ugly and a heavy drinker, and he sleeps through most of the fighting in the June Rebellion. Despite this, he eventually declares himself to be one of the insurgents.
Described as softer than Combeferre, Jean Prouvaire is a poet who calls himself Jehan due to his interest in the Middle Ages. He has knowledge of Italian, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and his interest in poetry is grand. Though he is timid and quiet, he is intrepid, and good above all.
Joannes Frollo "jolllly"
Lesgle, The Eagle
Lesgle is the son of a man who was granted a post-office by Louis XVIII. He is bald at twenty five years old. Unlucky but good humoured, he says often that he lives “under a roof of falling tiles”. Lesgle has no home of his own and usually stays with friends, most often Joly.
The Garduña secret criminal society founded in Spain. A prison gang that grew into a more organized entity over time, involved with robbery, kidnapping, arson, and murder-for-hire, and it carries out dirty work for the Inquisition.
The Hanseatic League is a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. It dominates Baltic maritime trade along the coast of Northern Europe. Stretching from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland. The League was created to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visit. The Hanseatic cities have their own legal system and furnish their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization is not a state, nor can it be called a confederation of city-states; only a very small number of the cities within the league enjoy autonomy and liberties comparable to those of a free imperial city.
|Wendish||Lübeck (Capital of the Hanseatic League, capital of the Wendish and Pomeranian Circle)||Free City of Lübeck|
|Wendish||Hamburg||Free City of Hamburg|
|Wendish||Lüneburg||Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Wendish||Wismar||Duchy of Mecklenburg|
|Wendish||Rostock||Duchy of Mecklenburg|
|Wendish||Stralsund||Principality of Rügen|
|Wendish||Demmin||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Greifswald||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Anklam||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Stettin, This city has gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Pasewalk||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Kolberg||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Rügenwalde||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Wendish||Stolp||Duchy of Pomerania|
|Baltic||Visby was a member of the league In 1285 at Kalmar, the League Visby's status was rescinded by the League, with Lübeck razing the city's temples||Kingdom of Sweden|
|Baltic||Stockholm||Kingdom of Sweden|
|Saxon||Brunswick (Capital of the Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle)||Duchy of Saxony|
|Saxon||Bremen||Free City of Bremen|
|Saxon||Magdeburg||Archbishopric of Magdeburg|
|Saxon||Goslar||Imperial City of Goslar|
|Saxon||Erfurt||Archbishopric of Mainz|
|Saxon||Stade||Archbishopric of Bremen|
|Saxon||Berlin||Margraviate of Brandenburg|
|Saxon||Frankfurt an der Oder||Margraviate of Brandenburg|
|Baltic||Gdańsk - Capital of the Prussian, Livonian and Swedish (or East Baltic) Circle.||Teutonic Order|
|Baltic||Kraków Capital of the Kingdom of Poland.
- Very loosely associated with Hansa, payes no membership fees, nor sends representatives to League meetings.
|Kingdom of Poland|
|Baltic||Breslau. - A part of the Duchy of Breslau and the Kingdom of Bohemia, was only loosely connected to the League and payes no membership fees nor does its representatives take part in Hansa meetings||Kingdom of Bohemia|
|Baltic||Königsberg(Kaliningrad)Königsberg was the capital of the Teutonic Order, becoming the capital of Ducal Prussiaon the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown until gaining its independence in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The city was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after East Prussia was divided between thePeople's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union at the Potsdam Conference.||Teutonic Order|
|Baltic||Rīga, A Free imperial city||Terra Mariana (Livonia)|
|Baltic||Reval (Tallinn)||Terra Mariana (Livonia)|
|Baltic||Dorpat (Tartu), The Bishopric of Dorpat gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana. During the Livonian War (1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).||Terra Mariana (Livonia)|
|Westphalian||Cologne, Was the capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle until after the Anglo-Hanseatic War, when the city was prosecuted with temporarily trade sanctions for having supported England, and Dortmund was made capital of the Circle.||Imperial City of Cologne|
|Westphalian||Dortmund, After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War, Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle.||Imperial City of Dortmund|
|Westphalian||Deventer||Bishopric of Utrecht|
|Westphalian||Kampen||Bishopric of Utrecht|
|Westphalian||Münster||Prince-Bishopric of Münster|
|Westphalian||Osnabrück||Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück|
|Westphalian||Soest, The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne until acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned with the Duchy of Cleves.||Imperial City of Soest|
A kontor was a foreign trading post of the Hanseatic League.
In addition to the major kontore in London (Steelyard), Ipswich, Bruges, Bergen (Bryggen), and Novgorod (Peterhof), some ports had a representative merchant and a warehouse.
|Kontor||Novgorod: Peterhof, Novgorod is one of the principal Kontore of the League and the easternmost. Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow, closed the Peterhof; it was reopened a few years later, but the League's Russian trade never recovered.||Novgorod Republic|
|Kontor||Bergen: is one of the principal Kontore of the League. It was razed by accidental fire administration of Bryggen has since been placed under Norwegian administration.Bryggen||Kingdom of Norway|
|Kontor||Bruges: Hanzekantoor - Bruges was one of the principal Kontore of the League until the 15th century, when the seaway to the city silted up; trade from Antwerp benefiting from Bruges's loss.||County of Flanders|
|Kontor||London:Steelyard - The Steelyard is one of the principal Kontore of the League. The Steelyard was destroyed and Edward IV exempted Cologne merchants, leading to the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74). TheTreaty of Utrecht, sealing the peace, led to the League purchasing the Steelyard outright, with Edward having renewed the League's privileges without insisting on reciprocal rights for English merchants in the Baltic. London merchants persuaded Elizabeth I to rescind the League's privileges; while the Steelyard has been re-established the advantage never returned.||Kingdom of England|
|Kontor||Antwerp, Antwerp became a major Kontor of the League, particularly after the seaway to Bruges silted up recently, leading to its fortunes waning in Antwerp's favour, despite Antwerp's refusal to grant special privileges to the League's merchants.||Duchy of Brabant|
|Kontor||Bishop's Lynn -The Hanseatic Warehouse was constructed in 1475 as part of the Treaty of Utrecht, allowing the League to establish a trading depot in Lynn for the first time.||Kingdom of England|
|Kontor||Ipswich||Kingdom of England|
|Kontor||Malmö||Kingdom of Denmark|
|Kontor||Falsterbo||Kingdom of Denmark|
|Kontor||Kaunas||Grand Duchy of Lithuania|
|Kontor||Pleskau (Pskov)||Pskov Republic|
|Kontor||Polotsk||Principality of Polotsk|
The Hellfire Club is an ancient club for the rich and hedonistic, it has branches all over the world, concealing the 'Inner Circle', a powerful and influential criminal organization.
Skull and Bones
Society for the Reformation of Manners
The Bavarian Illumminati
The Brotherhood of Set
The Daughters of the Flame
A mysterious band of assassins that orginated in the Middle East. The group has banded together in order to establish a utopian state. Because their number is small, the group uses guerilla tactics in their battles against enemies, including espionage, sabotage, and, most famously, political assassination. Around the world they plant highly trained moles inside enemy strongholds, with instructions to only attack when the time is right. Known for their extreme discretion in minimizing civilian casualties, as well as their penchant for using stealth to intimidate their targets.
Enemy leaders will often wake in the morning to find a dagger lying on their pillow, along with a note saying “you are in our grip.” Their legend has grown, and they have become rich as contract killers, performing jobs for many heads of state. The group's uses drugs and other intoxicants before a kill.
The Omega Agency
Order of Santiago
The Pinay Circle
The Witches of the Howling Moon
The Vehmic courts, or simply Vehm, is a "proto-vigilante" tribunal system of Westphalia in Germany, based on a fraternal organisation of lay judges called “free judges”. The original seat of the courts was in Dortmund.
After the execution of a death sentence, the corpse is hung on a tree to advertise the fact and deter others.
The Vehmic courts are the regional courts of Westphalia receiving their jurisdiction from the Holy Roman Emperor, from whom they also received the capacity to pronounce capital punishment. Everywhere else the power of life and death, originally reserved to the Emperor alone, had been usurped by the territorial nobles; only in Westphalia, called “the Red Earth” because here the imperial Blutbann was still valid, were capital sentences passed and executed by the Fehmic courts in the Emperor's name alone.
Membership and procedure
The sessions are held in secret, whence the names of “secret court”, “silent court”, etc. Attendance of secret sessions is forbidden to the uninitiated, on pain of death, which led to the designation “forbidden courts”.
A chairman presides over the court, and lay judges pass judgment. The court also constituted a Holy Order. Any free man of good character can become a judge. The new candidate was given secret information and identification symbols. The “knowing one” (German: Wissende) had to keep his knowledge secret, even from his closest family.
Lay judges must give formal warnings to known troublemakers, issue warrants, and take part in executions.
The organization of the is elaborate. The centre of each jurisdiction was referred to as a “free seat”, and its head or chairman is often a secular or spiritual prince, sometimes a civic community, the archbishop of Cologne being supreme over all. The actual president of the court was the “free count” , chosen for life by the Stuhlherr from among the Freischöffen, who formed the great body of the initiated. Of these the lowest rank were the Fronboten or Freifronen, charged with the maintenance of order in the courts and the duty of carrying out the commands of the Freigraf. The immense development of the Fehme is explained by the privileges of the Freischöffen; for they were subject to no jurisdiction but those of the Westphalian courts: whether as accused or accuser they had access to the secret sessions, and they shared in the discussions of the general chapter as to the policy of the society. At their initiation these swore to support the Fehme with all their powers, to guard its secrets, and to bring before its tribunal anything within its competence that they might discover. They were then initiated into the secret signs by which members recognized each other, and were presented with a rope and with a knife on which were engraved the mystic letters S.R.G.G. (stone, rope, grass, green). The Freistuhl was the place of session, and was usually a hillock, or some other well-known and accessible spot. The Freigraf and the Schöffen (judges) occupied the bench, before which a table, with a sword and rope upon it, was placed. The court was held by day and, unless the session was declared secret, all freemen, whether initiated or not, were admitted. The accusation was in the old German form; but only a Freischöffe could act as accuser. If the offence came under the competence of the court, meaning it was punishable by death, a summons to the accused was issued under the seal of the Freigraf. This was not usually served on him personally, but was nailed to his door, or to some convenient place where he was certain to pass. Six weeks and three days' grace were allowed, according to the old Saxon law, and the summons was thrice repeated. If the accused appeared, the accuser stated the case, and the investigation proceeded by the examination of witnesses as in an ordinary court of law. The judgment was put into execution on the spot if that was possible. The secret court, from whose procedure the whole institution has acquired its evil reputation, was closed to all but the initiated, although these were so numerous as to secure quasi-publicity; any one not a member on being discovered was instantly put to death, and the members present were bound under the same penalty not to disclose what took place. Crimes of a serious nature, and especially those that were deemed unfit for ordinary judicial investigation, such as heresy and witchcraft, fell within its jurisdiction, as also did appeals by persons condemned in the open courts, and likewise the cases before those tribunals in which the accused had not appeared. The accused, if a member, could clear himself by his own oath, unless he had revealed the secrets of the Fehme. If he were one of the uninitiated it was necessary for him to bring forward witnesses to his innocence from among the initiated, whose number varied according to the number on the side of the accuser, but twenty-one in favour of innocence necessarily secured an acquittal. The only punishment which the secret court could inflict was death. If the accused appeared, the sentence was carried into execution at once; if he did not appear, it was quickly made known to the whole body, and the Freischöffe who was the first to meet the condemned was bound to put him to death. This was usually done by hanging, the nearest tree serving for gallows. A knife with the mystic letters was left beside the corpse to show that the deed was not a murder. It has been claimed[by whom?] that, in some cases, the condemned would be set free, given several hours' head start and then hunted down and put to death. So fearsome was the reputation of the Fehme and its reach that many thus released committed suicide rather than prolonging the inevitable. This practice could have been a holdover from the ancient Germanic legal concept of outlawry (Acht). Legend and romance have combined to exaggerate the sinister reputation of the Fehmic courts; but modern historical research has largely discounted this, proving that they never employed torture, that their sittings were only sometimes secret, and that their meeting-places were always well known.
Maroons are those who had escaped from slavery in the Americas and formed independent settlements.
Frances Anne Hopkins (1838–1919) Shooting the Rapids
The voyageurs are the people in New France who engage in the transporting of furs by canoe for the fur trade.
Knights of the New Riech
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