The Big Bang
Forming of The Plane of Elemental chaos
* 1 billion years ago Chaos -Chaos is the only age that falls within the rule of Primordials,
Dead trees in the terraces of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, US. These trees grew during inactivity of the mineral-rich springs, and were killed when calcium carbonate carried by spring water clogged the vascular systems of the trees. The same process also effectively preserves the trees by preventing decay. Photo by Thegreenj
Forming of The Material plane
4600 -542 million years ago Precambrian
542 - 488.3 million years ago Cambrian
- 443.5 million years ago Ordovician
455– 430 Ordovician–Silurian extinction Caused by the sea level and climate fluctuations, impact events, and volcanism, yield ejection of harmful gases, ashes, and aerosols into the atmosphere and, thus, provoking the greenhouse effect, atmosphere darkening and the destruction of food chains, creation of the abyss.
455– 430 Ordovician–Silurian extinction
Caused by the sea level and climate fluctuations, impact events, and volcanism, yield ejection of harmful gases, ashes, and aerosols into the atmosphere and, thus, provoking the greenhouse effect, atmosphere darkening and the destruction of food chains, creation of the abyss.
450 million years ago: plants colonize the land. Sharks evolve.
420 million years ago: first creature took a breath of air
416 to 359.2 million years ago Devonian
400 million years ago: First insects.
375–360 Late Devonian extinction
359.2 - 299 million years ago Carboniferous
315 million years ago: the evolution of the first reptiles.
299 - 251 million years ago Permian Period
251.4 million years ago: the "Great Dying" Permian mass extinction.
250 - 200 million years ago Triassic
220 million years ago: first crocodilians
201.3 million years ago: Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
Massive volcanic eruptions,releasing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, which would causing intense global warming.
199.6 - 145.5 million years ago Jurassic
195 million years ago: first mammals.
- 65.5 million years Cretaceous
135 million years ago: First birds
.65 million years- CretaceousTertiary extinction event The non-avian dinosaurs died out
65.5 to 56 million years ago The Paleocene
60 million years ago: evolution of the first primates and rodents.
56 to 34 million years ago The Eocene
55 million years ago: First known bats.
34 million to 23 million years ago The Oligocene
34 million years ago: cats evolve
23.03 to 5.332 million years ago The Miocene
5.332 million to 2.588 million years The Pliocene
4.8 million years ago: The mammoth appears.
2,588,000 The Pleistocene
2.5 million years ago: Smilodon, the best known of the sabre-toothed cats, appears.
800,000 B.C. - People lived in Mu (Lemuria).
500,000 BC: Shelter construction
400,000 BC: Spear
223,000 - 100,000 BC Hominids, such as Neanderthals disposing of deceased individuals in simple graves with limestone blocks on them, as a form of grave marking.
200,000 BC: Glue
200,000 B.C. - People inhabited Atlantis.
110,000 The begining of the last ice age during the last years of the Pleistocene, to approximately 18,000 years ago.
Samuel Birmann (1793-1847)
100,000 years ago: Domestication of dogs
98,000 BC Neanderthals deflesh their dead, after a period of excarnation prior to burial.
75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano supereruption.
60,000 Bow and arrow.
52,000 - 50,000 - Atlantean technology advances.
50,000 - Polar shift. Lemuria and Atlantis lose land to the sea.
50,000 B.C. - Atlantis becomes five islands.
50,000 B.C. until 10,000 B. C. Delphynes from Lemuria move to Central and South America.
36,000 BC: Cloth woven from flax fiber
35,000 BC: Flute
33,000 fey migrate from the Otherworld creating shared cultures between them and humans.
31,000 years ago: Cave paintings
30,000 BC Alulim was the first king of Eridu, and the first king of Sumer, making him the first recorded king in the world. Enki Avatar of Enlil, the god of Eridu brought civilization to Sumer at this point.
30,000-11,000 B.C. - First native peoples enter North America from Asia via Beringia.
28,000 BC Nacaals (Delphynes priests from Lemuria) move to India and Tibet.
28,000 B.C. to 18,000 B.C. - Atlantis loses land and becomes one island with a chain of islands connecting it to the North American continent. Atlanteans move to lands around the Atlantic Ocean. Lemuria looses a great deal of its land
28,000 B.C. - The Earth's magnetic pole moves.
27,000 years ago. End of shared cultures located around central and south western France, between fey and humans.
25,000 - 21,000 BC Individual skulls and/or long bones begin to be stained with red ochre and are separately buried to produce sacred relics.
Additionally, various objects are being included in the graves (i.e. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, "baton" antlers, flint blades, etc.).
22,000 years ago. No-humans believed to have become extinct in Europe.
20,000 B.C. - Large Atlantean settlement in the Bahama Bank area.
20,000 years ago. Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history proper began.
18,000 years ago. The last glacial period ends; rise of human civilization.
17880 Chaos gives birth to Gaia
1750 Uranus rapes Gaia but he hated the children she bore him. The Titans, six sons and six daughters, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes He imprisoned Gaia's youngest children in Tartarus, deep within Earth, which they caused pain to Gaia. She shaped a great flint-bladed sickle and asked her sons to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus, youngest of the Titans, was willing.
17,100 The Titans fight Uranus and eventually he is defeated by Cronus. Cronus cuts off Uranus' genitals with a sickle and throws theminto the sea. From the blood which spilled from Uranus onto the Earth came forth the Gigantes, the three avenging Furiesthe Erinyes and Meliae, the ash-nymphs and Aphrodite emerges naked from the sea and travels to Cyprus.
The Golden Age of Mankind (17100BC-16740BC) The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Titans,
The Golden Age, oil on copper painting by Joachim Wtewael, 1605, Metropolitan Museum of Art Date (1605) Joachim Wtewael (15661638)
17030 BC Cronus is warned not to take Rhea as his wife or have children with her, otherwise one of his children will dethrone him. He ignores this and Rhea gives birth to Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cronus swallows his children in order to avoid the prophesy but astone is substituted by Rhea in place of Zeus who is taken by his mother into hiding in Crete.
1684 The Titanomachy
Fall of the Titans 1588 Oil on canvas, 239 cm x 307 cm Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen
The Titanomachy, or War of the Titans, was the ten-year series of battles between the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, based on Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. This Titanomachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans, Battle of Gods, or just The Titan War.
the youngest Titan, Cronus, overthrew
his own father, Uranus, with the help
of his mother Gaia. Cronus
then castrated his father, took his throne, and released his fellow Titan
siblings, who had been locked away in Tartarus
under Uranus' tyrannical and selfish
However, as Uranus was usurped, he made a prophecy that Cronus' own children would rebel against his rule and castrate and depose him just as he and his siblings had done to him. For fear of his unborn children rising against him, Cronus now turned into the terrible king his father Uranus had been fearing their strenght he re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus.
After marrying from his wife (and sister) Rhea, he swallowed each of his children whole as they were born - Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Being immortal, this did not kill them, but they remained trapped inside him. Rhea grieved for the loss of her children. So, when she was close to giving birth to Zeus, she consulted with her parents Gaia and Uranus. They revealed the future to her, showing her how to thwart Cronus. When Cronus came to Rhea for their child, Rhea gave him instead a stone, wrapped in cloths. Not noticing, he swallowed the stone instead. Rhea brought Zeus to a cave on an abandoned island, where Zeus was raised.
When Zeus grew up, he went to one of Cronus' parties disguised as a fellow Titan, and gave Cronus some special potion, which caused Cronus to vomit up his swallowed siblings. Zeus then led his brothers and sisters in rebellion against the Titans.
Now the Olympians, led by Zeus, declared war against the previous generation of deities, the Titans. The Titans who fought were led by Cronus and included: Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Atlas, and Menoetius. The Olympians (Zesus's siblings) led by Zeus. Additionally, the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes and Cyclopes, who had been imprisoned by Cronus, assisted in the revolt. The Hecatonchires helped the Olympians by hurling huge stones at the Titans. The Cyclopes helped by crafting Zeus' famous weapon, the lightning bolt.
Having at last won victory after a full decade of war, the Olympian gods divided the spoils between themselves, granting dominion of the heavens and sky to Zeus, the sea to Poseidon, and the underworld to Hades. The Olympians then shut the defeated Titans within Tartarus. However, since during the war Oceanus and the Titanides (female Titans), Thia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Hecate, Metis and Tethys, had remained neutral, they were not punished by Zeus. Some other Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus include: Atlas, Cronus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus. Zeus gave Atlas a different punishment. The sky, nearly collapsed onto the earth after the war because so much fighting had occurred below. As a result, Zeus condemned Atlas to hold up the heavens and sky for eternity. Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus switched sides and aided Zeus in the war therefore they were not punished. Cronus manage to flee after the war, thereby avoiding imprisonment in Tartarus. The Hecatonchires remained to guard over the prisoners of Tartarus.
16840 Inachus becomes king and judges that the land of the Peloponnese belongs to Hera
The second age: The Silver Age of Mankind (1674-1628) - The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of The Gods.
Stone Age: the feast. Detail 2 Date (1883) Viktor Vasnetsov (18481926)
In the silver age Zeus reduced the spring, and reconstructed the year into four seasons, so that men for the first time sought the shelter of houses and had to labor to supply their food.
The first seeds of grain were placed in the ground since now man had to gather their own food. A child grew up at his mother's side a hundred years, but adulthood lasted a short time.
Bridging the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved together. These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more freely than they did later.
16670 Prometheus is chained to the rocks after stealing the secret of fire from the Gods and giving it to man
16670 Zeus has affair with Io the daughter of Inachus and carries her off to Egypt where she marries Telegonus.
16640 Herakles the Dactyl holds the first Olympic Games
16590 Phoroneus son of Inachus, the first man, rules over the entire Peloponnese from Phronocium later to become Argos
16450 Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt.
16400 Gigantomachy The Battle of the Gods and Giants errupts and Porphyrion is defeated.
The Gigantes rose up in arms against the Olympians in an attempt to end the Olympian reign. They tested the strength of the Olympian gods in what is known as the Gigantomachia or Gigantomachy. Led on by Alcyoneus, Porphyrion and Enceladus the Gigantes hoped to reach the top of Mount Olympus by stacking the mountain ranges of Thessaly, Pelion and Ossa, on top of each other. With the aid of their powerful weapons the Olympians defeated the Gigantes and quelled the rebellion, confirming their reign over the earth, sea, and heaven, and confining the Gigantes to Tartarus .
16280 Epaphus is murdered. The Titans attempt to regain power but fail. Atlas is punished by being made to carry the heavens on his shoulders. Typhon is defeated and imprisoned under a volcano.
16,000 years ago. Pottery
15,000 B.C. - Descendants of people from Lemuria from India, Burma, Tibet to upper Egypt.
14,000 B.C. - Atlanteans settled in southern Egypt.
years ago. Beginning of the Holocene extinction generally from the impact
Throughout more than 90% of Mankinds history, Humans lived in small bands as nomadic hunter-gatherers. As language became more complex, the ability to remember and communicate information resulted in a new replicator: the meme. Ideas could be exchanged quickly and passed down the generations.
13,000 years ago. earliest evidence of human warfare.
12,000 B.C. - The Bird-Serpent War.
11,000 B.C. - Disappearance of the land bridge between North America and Asia.
10500-8000 BC: the Natufians, groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers in the western fertile crescent, developed a way of life that revolutionized the world; they lived in permanent 100 person villages (such as Nahal Oren), built wooden huts with stone foundations, harvested wild grains with flint sickles, and used grinding stones to process their harvests. Their cities included the city of Jericho. They lived in semi-subterranean, semi-circle houses.
10,000 years ago. Defeat of the Frost Giants
10,000 years ago. Holocene Dire Wolf, Smilodon, Giant Beaver, Ground Sloth, Giant Imperial Mammoth, Woolly Mammoth, Mastodons, Giant Short-Faced Bear, American Cheetah, Scimitar Cats (Homotherium), American Camels, American Horses, and American Lions all become extinct.
10,000 BC Earliest settlers arrive in Ireland, in the Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age period. They cross by land bridge from Scotland. These people are mainly hunters but they did not war as they were still worshipers of the Great Goddess. Retreat of ice and warming of climate in Wales. Nomadic hunter gatherers in Anglesey and Lleyn.
End of the Paleolithic Period, All continents (except Antarctica) inhabited, Agriculture and the domestication of animals begins.
9600 BC. Atlantis was a naval power that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa.
Nicholas Roerich (18741947)
9564 BC: Destruction of Atlantis the Atlantean priesthood flee to establish colonies in the British Isles, Western Europe, North Africa and South America. Rise of the Northern Mystery Tradition centered on the island Thule and the Aryan culture. Invention of the Runic Alphabet.
9500 BC; First temples.
9000 BC Earliest walled cities
BC: settlements domesticate dogs and, instead of harvesting wild grains, domesticated
barley, emmer, wheat, and vegetables.
8500 - 7000 years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture. This spread to neighboring regions, and developed independently elsewhere, until most Humans lived sedentary lives in permanent settlements as farmers.
Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia. However, among those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative stability and increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand.
Agriculture had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before. Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing division of labor. This led to Earths first civilization at Sumer in the Middle East
BC: Kiffian culture
7000 BC: ancient Mesopotamians ("between the rivers") developed the first large populated permanent settlements (such as Jarmo and Jericho); they lived in mud brick multi-room houses with mud ovens, used pottery, traded with other villages in the fertile crescent, and domesticated goats, sheep, and pigs.
B.C. - Cataclysm in Bimini.
6000 BC: the Hassuna cultures lived in organized villages with a social courtyard containing a religious shrine, surrounded by mud brick houses, and around the villages were five foot thick walls with community grain or water storage towers; they introduced irrigation for farming, canals for trade, decorated pottery, and lead or copper beads.
5500 BC: Agriculture started in Ancient Egypt.
5500 BC: the Halafian cultures were the first to specialize labor and have cobblestone roads; they were the first to use the potter's wheel and the Kiln to make pottery with brilliantly colored realistic pictures and shapes.
5000 B.C. - Beginning of agriculture in the Tehuacán Valley matorral.
4500-2500 BC: Tenerians culture, colonized the region in present Niger
4000 BC: Syrian and Arabian nomads raided southern Mesopotamia, they were eventually absorbed into the Ubadian population.
BC: the Ubaidian cultures made pottery decorated with wave patterns using
the potter's wheel; they established many farming settlements including Eridu,
Uruk, Adab, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. They lived
in lower Mesopotamia.
Ubaidian settlements emerged as small village communities in the foothills
surrounding great river valleys; because they lived close to each other the
control over water streams, harvest, and domestication became easier to control
and caused increased food production.
As food production increased it was able to supply larger communities and the villages grew into cities, civilization first emerged; cities were the foundation of civilization because with them came other civilizing elements including religious cults, political systems, written language, and monumental architecture.
4000 years ago. Domestication of the horse
4000 BC In Brittain earliest-known Druidic camps or communities appear.
3600 years ago. In Egypt, mummification around this time in Hierankopolis.
3700 Beginning of the Early Minoan period on Crete
BC: the Sumerians, a nomadic people from the Armenian Plateau northeast of
Mesopotamia, migrated into Mesopotamia and intermingled with the population;
they brought with them horse-drawn chariots and metallurgy used to make copper
helmets and spears.
the Sumerians the old cities developed into city-states, governed by a theocratic
assembly of priests and, because priests knew what the gods "wanted,"
they were very influential to the city-states; religion was also important
in architecture because the most important building in each city-state was
the ziggurat, the temple (or home) of the patron god of that city-state.
The Sumerian city-states were in constant competition with each other, even if by war; despite wars, the governments of the city-states generally maintained friendly relations because, they as aristocrats, held a special bond as the elite of a people who shared a common religion, language, and culture.
3500 - 3000 BC First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as "corpse exposure" was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be consumed by animals and birds.
3200 BC: a writing system was developed in order to keep administrative records; it was called cuneiform and was made up of pictograms (pictures) describing objects and ideograms describing ideas or actions.
The invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survivalcuriosity and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and Wisdom.
3100 years ago. The earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.
2958 Cessair she was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland.
To escape an oncoming Flood,they sail to Ireland however, when they attempt to land, ships are lost. The only survivors are Cessair a hundred and forty-nine other women, and three men.
The men are shared out evenly among the women. However, two soon die. Fintán is left with all the women but is unable to cope and so he flees. When the Flood comes, Fintán is the only one to survive. He becomes a salmon and later an eagle and a hawk, living for 5,500 years after the Flood, whence he becomes a man again and recounts Ireland's history.
2800 Etana became the first Sumerian monarch and established the Kish dynasty; he put northern Mesopotamia under his control, built the first monumental building as his palace, and called himself king of the "four quarters of the world"; Meskiaggasher established the Uruk dynasty and controlled most of the south.
2800-2670 BC: the Kish dynasty established a powerful kingship and because it was situated at a critical spot on the Euphrates river it controlled irrigation flow to the southern city-states and thus kept the Uruk dynasty, in the south, under control.
2900 BC: because the city-states were at constant war, they needed a strong military leader to oversee war and large building projects; they began to replace theocracies with hereditary monarchies and according to ancient tablets, "the kingship came down from heaven."
2750 BC: Enmerkar succeeded his father Meskiaggasher as king of Uruk; he and his general Lugalbanda (who also succeeded Enmerkar as king) conquered Aratta, a city in northeastern Mesopotamia and marked the decreasing power of Kish in the north; their deeds formed the basis of the Lugalbanda Epic.
2700 BC: Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.
2700 BC: Gilgamesh, grandson of Enmerkar, became king of Uruk; he constructed the brick walls around Uruk and his deeds formed the basis of the Gilgamesh Epic; Enmebaragesi became king of Kish, he ordered the construction of the Temple of Enlil at Nippur, which became the spiritual center of Sumer, and he led victorious campaigns against Elam.
2680 The second group of people to settle in Ireland, the Muintir Partholóin (people of Partholón) arrive. They are responsible for introducing such things as farming, cooking, brewing and buildings. After some years, they all die of plague in a single week.
Partholón was the son of Sera, a king of Greece, and fled his homeland after murdering his father and mother. He lost his left eye in the attack on his parents. He and his followers set off from Greece, sailed via Sicily, around Iberia, and arrived in Ireland from the west, having travelled for two and a half months.
They battle and defeat the Fomorian Titans, who are led by Cichol Gricenchos, at Magh Ithe, in the first battle fought in Ireland.
2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid
2670 years ago. Mesanepada established the Ur dynasty; he defeated Agga, king of Kish, which ended the Kish dynasty, and put the Uruk and Ur dynasties simultaneously in power.
2670-2370 years ago. the Uruk dynasty became weak from constant attacks in the north which only strengthened the power of the Ur dynasty in the south.
2650 The Muintir Partholóin all die from plague
2640 years ago. The cultivation and weaving of silk starts to be a closely guarded secret in China.
years ago. Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization
expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan,
much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region
of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of
its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban
planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus
script for its writing system.
years ago. Bactrian Camel and Dromedary are domesticated
2600 years ago. Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza
2600 BCE Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex setupincluding altar, portal, station stones, etc.and shows consideration of solar alignments.
2297 – A flood devastates China during the reign of Emperor Yao
2525 years ago. Lugalannemudu of Adab, a city in the north, united northern Sumer under his control; his power quickly passed to Mesilim, king of Kish; these conquests by the northern city-states ended the Uruk dynasty and put the Ur dynasty in complete power.
2500 years ago. the construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge begins and continues for the next five hundred years.
2425 years ago. Eannatum established the Lagash dynasty; he united Sumer under his control, called himself king of Kish, and conquered much neighboring territory.
2452 years ago.Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, a group of legendary rulers in Ancient China.
2370 years ago. Urukagina of became king of Lagash; he enacted many social reforms and during his reign Lugalzagesi, king of Umma, defeated him and took control of Sumer, which went into a state of civil strife.
2350 years ago. Sargon I, a Kish general, usurped and became king of Kish; he defeated Lugalzagesi and took control of Sumer, built his capital at Akkad and established the Akkadian dynasty, he centralized trade, made his daughter priestess of Ur, repaired the irrigation systems, and created the first professional army of 5400 men.
2350 Nemed is the leader of the third group of people to settle in Ireland, who are referred to as the Muintir Nemid, "people of Nemed". They arrive thirty years after their predecessors, the Muintir Partholóin, had died out. The Muintir Nemid set sail from the Caspian Sea.
Nemed won four battles against the Fomorian Titans. However, nine years after arriving in Ireland, Nemed dies of plague along with thousands of his people.
The remaining Muintir Nemid are then oppressed by the Fomorians Morc and Conand, who lived in Conand's Glass Tower, on an island off the coast. Each Samhain, they must give two thirds of their children, their corn and their milk to the Fomorians. After many years, the Muintir Nemid rise up against the Fomorians and attack the Conand's Tower with 60,000 warriors (30,000 on sea and 30,000 on land), defeating Conand. Morc then attacks, and almost all of the Nemedians are killed in a tidal wave. Only one ship escapes. The island would again be empty for another 200 years.
2250 years ago. Manituu, son of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he defeated "32 cities in Iran," the Elamites, and the many other city-states which tested his military strength.
2240 years ago. Akkad, capital of the Akkadian Empire, becomes the largest city in the world, surpassing Memphis, capital of Egypt.
2230 years ago. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he extended the empire to "the four quarters of the world" and was the first king to deify himself.
2218 years ago. the Gutians, a group of nomadic peoples east of Mesopotamia, swept through Mesopotamia, destroyed Akkad, and conquered Sumer; in the ancient writings Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin angered the god Enlil, who made the Gutians attack.
2190 – Shi Huang Ti, first ruler of unified China, begins construction of the Great Wall of China using prisoners of war as slave labor.
2181 years ago. Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
2160 years ago. Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe
years ago. Gudea became king of Lagash; despite Gutian rule of Sumer he took
control of southern Mesopotamia, encouraged literature, and initiated religious
constructions; after his death he was deified and many magnificent statues
were produced in his honor.
years ago. Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor
2134 years ago. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I
2120 years ago. Utuhegal became king of Uruk; he and his general, Ur-Nammu, defeated the Gutians and drove them from Sumer; Utuhegal rewarded Ur-Nammu by making him governor of Ur.
2113 BC: Ur-Nammu established the 3rd Ur dynasty and declared himself king of Sumer and Akkad; he defeated Utuhegal, king of Uruk, and Nammahani, king of Lagash, united Sumer under his rule, constructed many temples, and established the first code of laws which emphasized the king's duty to protect the people against injustice.
2104 BC The Ogygian Deluge occurs.
2095 BC: Shulgi succeeded his father Ur-Nammu as king of Ur; during his reign their was a drastic water shortage, he reorganized irrigation systems and encouraged economic records on clay tablets.
BC Partholón arrives in Ireland
2037 BCEmperor Shen Nong makes first (perhaps mythical) tea drink by boiling fresh leaves
2004 BC: the Elamites, a group of nomadic peoples in the north, invaded Sumer; they destroyed Ur, captured Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur, ended the 3rd Ur Dynasty, and sent Sumer into civil strife; regular imports of tin from Britain began to go throughout Europe and the Middle East, making the use of bronze to make tools and weapons possible.
BC Babylon's Code of Hammurabi instructs, "If a man has laid a charge
of witchcraft and has not justified it, he upon whom the witchcraft is laid
shall go to the holy river; he shall plunge into the holy river and if the
holy river overcome him, he who accused him shall take to himself his house."
2000 completion of Stonehenge.
BC Glass appears.
1934- 1897 Firbolg High Kings rule Ireland
1900 BC. First Minoan palace built at Knossos c.
1900: the Amorites, a group of nomadic peoples from Syria encouraged by the internal strife, invaded and conquered Sumer; they intermingled with the Sumerians and obtained many high positions, including becoming kings of cities, the most powerful being the Isin dynasty.
1897 Tuatha Dé Danann arrive in Ireland.
They came from four otherworld cities The Cities of Danu Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias–where they acquired their magical skills and attributes. Arriving in ships on the coast of the Conmaicne Mara's territory. They immediately burnt the ships "so that they should not think of retreating to them; and the smoke and the mist that came from the vessels filled the neighboring land and air. Therefore it was conceived that they had arrived in clouds of mist". Led by their king, Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuireadh on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland.The Dagda was worshipped leader of the pantheon of gods and was commonly known as the 'father of all'. Later the Tuatha Dé Danann were driven back to the otherworld by invaders and thereafter inhabited their world of the hills and mountains.
1894: Sumu-abum, an Amorite, conquered a small portion of land in middle Mesopotamia; he built up the small village of Babylon and there ruled as king.
1897–1890 BC Bres Fomorian Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1890–1870 Nuada Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1870–1830 Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1823 BC: Rim-Sin, an Amorite, became king of Larsa; he conquered Isin, ending its reign of power, and united Sumer under the rule of the Larsa dynasty.
1792 BC: Hammurabi, an Amorite, became king of Babylon; he defeated Rim-Sin, conquered Mesopotamia, and established the Babylon Dynasty; he oversaw navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, construction, cleared block rivers, punished dishonest officials, reformed the calendar, and codified the Sumerian laws in the Code of Hammurabi with its primary idea, "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth."
1750 BC: Samsu-iluna succeeded his father Hammurabi as king of Babylon; he defeated the first invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites, a group of nomadic peoples from the east.
1731 BC Nemedians arrived in Ireland
1700 BC Palace at Knossos destroyed c. then rebuilt
royal tombs at Mycenae date between 1650-1550. Thera volcano erupts in
1628. Minoan palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquakes c.1600)
The third age: The First Brazen Age of Mankind (1628-1472)
Defeat of rebel angels, by Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Men of the Bronze Age were hard. War was their purpose and passion. Not only arms and tools, but their very homes were forged of bronze. The men of this age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits but dwell in the "dank house of Hades". It came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.
1628 Zeus seduces Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus (first of Zeus affairs with mortal women)
1628 Car the son of Phoroneus founds the city of Megara
1628 Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt
1607 Argus the grandson of Phoroneus founds the city of Argos
(Achaean invaders reach region of Mycenae c.1600 BC)
BC: the Hittites swept through Babylonia, took prisoners, and looted wealth;
they brought with them the use of iron, which was used to make spears and
battle axes; the Kassites proceeded the Hittites, conquered Babylonia, and
established the Kassite dynasty.
1572 Criasus the son of Argus becomes king of Argos. Peiras his brother, founds the first temple of Hera in Argolis.
1570 BC: Agum, a Kassite, became king of Babylonia; he reconquered lost lands and extended his control over all Mesopotamia.
1527 Lelex is the first king in Lacedaemonia.
1517 Pelasgus rules over Arcadia.
1510 Polycaon son of Lelex rules in Messenia and Myles rules in Sparta.
1500 Emergence of Eastern Woodland culture in North America
1447-1407 BC Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1488-1460 Lycaon provokes the Gods anger by murdering his son Nyctimus and serving him up to the Gods.
1488 Danaus flees from Aegyptus to Rhodes then takes Pelasgian Argos
(c.1480 BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving tribute from the Danaioi)
1487 Lycaon king of Arkadia, introduces Zeus cult
1484 Cecrops king of Athens introduces Zeus cult
1472 Danaus becomes king of Argos in the Peloponnese after Gelanor steps down
Hesiod's fourth age: The Heroic or Second Brazen Age (1460BC-1103BC) - In this period men lived with noble demigods and heroes.
The monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.
Before the Hellenic Wars
A flood is sent by Zeus to destroy all of mankind
after Lycaon outrages the Gods. Deucalion and his family escape in an Ark,
which Prometheus tells him to build.
1450 BCMinoan Second Palace period ends and Late Minoan culture starts.
(Mycenaeans conquer Minoans in Crete c.1450 BC. Earthquake destroys city of Knossos c.1450 BC. Palace is rebuilt and used until c.1380 BC)
1440 Dardanus founds Troy after being given a share in the kingdom of Teucer king of Phrygia
(Tudhaliya II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440)
1438 Zeus violates Europe, birth of Minos
1437 BCKing Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I
1437 Cadmus colonises Boeotia and founds Thebes.
1421 Minos I becomes king of Crete
1420 BCCrete conquered by Mycenae start of the Mycenaean period.
1410 Olympic Games held 50 years after the flood
1407-1337 BC The Dagda Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1404 Dionysus is entertained by Amphyction king of Athens
1400 Cinyras the son of Paphos the son of Pygmalion the son of Belus funds the city of Paphos in Cyprus
(Cyprus is conquered by the Mycenaeans and Minoan colony wiped out c.1400)
1400 Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt.
1399 Erichthonius now rules at Athens
1399 Erichthonius rules at Troy
1397 Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.
1386 Dionysus known as Tauro Kranos restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers Damascus and all of India.
(Amenhotep III reigns in Egypt from 1386-1349 and refers to Greek cities such including Amyclae in his records, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400, Tudhaliya III rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.)
1386 Dionysus drives Pentheus the king of Thebes to madness
1385 Cadmus leaves Thebes and goes to Illyria
1377 Tectemus the son of Dorus founds colony in Crete and fathers Asterius
(Second Mycenaean wave of colonisation in Crete puts and end to Minoan palace civilisation c.1400 BC)
Minoan culture ends on Crete.
1375 Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned.
1374 Pandion becomes king of Athens
1370 Athamas rules over Boeotia
1368 Death of Erichthonius, King of Dardania.
1365 Perseus son of Danae by Zeus is born
1363 Apollo fathers Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas
1360 Epopeus king of Sicyon at war with Thebes
1357 Pandions daughter Philomela marries Tereus king of Thrace to form alliance against Theban king Labdacus
1354 Erechtheus becomes king of Athens
1345 Phrixus while a boy is taken to Colchis by a Golden Lamb
1342-1320 The children of Perseus and Andromeda are born
(Fortress of Mycenae built between 1400 and 1200)
1341 Perseus accidentally kills his grandfather Acrisius at funeral Games of King Teutamides father
1337-1327 BC Delbáeth Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1336 Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Phthia and his brothers
1333 Bellerophon goes to king Proetus court to be purified
1329 Cecrops the eldest son of Erechtheus is chosen by Xuthus to become king of Athens
1327-1317 Fiacha Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1325 Amphion kills Lycus and becomes king of Thebes
1323 BCDeath of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.
1320 Melampus the seer cures the madness of the Argive women and receives one third of Proetus kingdom and his brother Bias another third. First temple built to Dionysus.
1315-1264 Pelops the son of Tantalus king of Phrygia and Lydia flees Asia Minor and rules in Pisa and Olympia
(Mursilis II king of the Hittites dies in 1315 BC)
1314 Pelops sister Niobe marries Amphion king of Thebes
1314 Pelops holds Olympic Games
1314 The Argonauts Calais and Zetes are born to Oreithyia and Boreas
1314 Pelops marries Hippodamia
1310 Electryon becomes king of Mycenae
1309 BCCecrops II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was later driven into exile from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II's brother (or possibly nephew) Metion, so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married the King's daughter and eventually inherited the throne. After his death, Pandion II's sons returned to Athens and drove out the sons of Metion.
1309 Pandion becomes king of Athens and is expelled by the sons of Metion
1301 Oebalus becomes the second husband of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus
1300 Laius caries off Chrysippus the son of Pelops and Astyoche
1299 Minos II the grandson of Minos becomes king of Crete after Asterius dies
1290 Procris leaves her husband and is seduced by Minos in Crete
1317-1287 BC Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine Tuatha Dé Danann High Kings of Ireland
1287 BC -80 AD Milesian High Kings of Ireland
1286-1264 Sthenelus takes throne of Mycenae after Amphitryon kills Electryon son of Perseus
November 4 1286 Heracles is born nine months later and named Palaemon
1285 Heracles strangles 2 serpents sent by Hera
1285 Asclepius is born to Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus
1284 Aegeus regains Athens from the sons of Metion
1283 Bias of Priene killed by his nephew Pylas
1282 BCPandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He reportedly only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion (son of Erechtheus of Athens) and his sons (including in some accounts Daedalus). His four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica.
The monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.
1282 Aeacus helps Poseidon build the walls of Troy for Laodamaon now king of Troy
1274 Pelias imprisons Aeson and takes the throne after the birth of Jason
1271 Theseus is born
1270 Aegeus accidentally kills Minos son Androgeus at Games held in honour of Laius king of Thebes and is forced to pay a tribute of 7 Athenian boys and girls every 9 years
1270 All of Greece plagued by earthquakes and famine due to Pelops murder of Stymphalus or the Athenians murder of Androgeus and Aeacus is sent to pray for deliverance.
1269 Atreus and Thyestes march against Laius the king of Thebes
1269-1235 Oedipus kills Laius the king of Thebes and marries his own mother Iocasta
1268 Heracles lies with Thespius 50 daughters and kills the Lion of Cithaeron
1264 Heracles marries Megara after defeating the Minyans while Creon is king of Thebes in place of Laius
1258-1246 The Labours of Heracles take place while Eurystheus is king of Mycenae
1253 Herakles brings back Alcestis the wife of Admetus from death
1252 Theseus kills the Minotaur at the centre of the Labyrinth built by Daedelus
1251 The Caledonian Boar hunt
1247 The nine Muses who said to be the daughters of Peirus the Macedonian engage in a musical contest with Thamyris
1247 The marriage of Peleus to his second wife Thetis
1246 The birth of Achilles
1246 The 4 month long voyage of Jason and the Argonauts
1246 BC Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.
1246-1243 Heracles is sold as a slave to Omphale after killing Iphitus
1246 Eumolpus is victorious in the flute contest at Pelias funeral games
1245 Orpheus tries to rescue Euridice from Hades
1243 Heracles sacks Troy and puts a young Priam on the throne (Troy VII destroyed c.1250 BC)
1243-1238 Heracles settles old scores in the Peloponnese
1242 Heracles conquers Elis and establishes Olympic Games. Polydeuces is champion Boxer.
1241 Heracles places Nestor who is still a boy on the throne of Messenia after killing his brothers and father king Neleus of Pylos for helping the Elians
1240 Heracles defeats the sons of Hippocoon and restores the throne of Sparta to Tyndareus
1239 Heracles leaves the Peloponnese and marries Deianira
1238 Hyllus is born
1236 Medea flees from Corinth after murdering Glauce the daughter of Creon
1235 Heracles exiled to Thrachis after killing one of Oeneus kinsmen
1234 Nessus carries of Deianira and is killed by Heracles with a poison arrow
1233 The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus's affairs with mortals)
1230 The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.
1229 Heracles kills Cycnus the son of Ares
1227 Prophecy revealed from Oracle of Dodona that Heracles would die in 15 months after carrying off Iole
August 12 1226 Heracles dies and becomes a god
The Hellenic Wars
1225 The seven make war against Thebes
BC: Tukulti-Ninurta I, king of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, captured Babylon
and extended his rule through northern Mesopotamia; although the Kassite dynasty
continued to rule, it was only nominal.
1140 BC: Shutruk-Nahhunte I, king of Elam, captured Babylon; he ended the Kassite dynasty and placed his son Shilhak-Inshushinak on the throne; he encouraged sculpture and literature.
1224 Theseus captures Thebes and buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.
1223 Eurystheus defeated by Theseus and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles
Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, by Piero di Cosimo (notice the female centaur with a male centaur in the foreground).
The battle with the Centaurs at the wedding feast of Pirithous, the Centauromachy. The centaurs had been invited, but, unused to wine, their wild nature came to the fore. When the bride was presented to greet the guests, the centaur Eurytion leapt up and attempted to rape her. All the other centaurs were up in a moment. In the battle that ensued, Theseus came to the Lapiths' aid. In the battle the Lapith Caeneus was killed, and the defeated Centaurs were expelled from Thessaly to the northwest.
March 5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae
1220 Castor, Polydeuces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding
1218 After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes takes the throne of Mycenae
1215 Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Thyestes.
1215 The Epigoni attack Thebes
1213 Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90
1213 The Beauty contest. Menelaus marries Helen.
1207 The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.
1206 Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erichthonius II of Athens and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus. Menestheus is reportedly assisted by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King Lycomedes is an old friend and ally. Lycomedes, however, considers his visitor a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.
1203 Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting in single combat against Echemus
1201 First Gathering at Aulis
1200 B.C. - Emergence of the Olmec culture.
1193 Second Gathering at Aulis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia.
1184 BCApril 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy.
Johann Georg Trautmann (17131769): Blick auf das brennende Troja Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe
The war sprang from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera and Aphrodite, after the goddess Eris ("Discord") gave them a golden apple with the inscription "to the fairest" ( known as the apple of Discord) at the wedding feast of Peleus and Thetis. The goddesses went to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition of Hellenic troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Greeks Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks mercilessly slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few returned to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.
Jan 12 1183 The return and murder of Agamemnon
1183 BC * Iron Age - During this age humans live an existence of toil and miseryand the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."
1183-1173 The Odyssey
(A massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC)
1183 Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus
1180 Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus
1179 Odysseus held captive by Calypso
1178 The suitors vie for Penelope
1175 Menelaus flees Egypt
(Ramses III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC. Among those named are the Peleset, Tjeker and Denyen, ie. the Pelasgians, Teukrians and Danaians who are said to be based in Cyprus)
1175 The vengeance of Orestes against Clytemnestra and Aegistheus
1181 BCMenestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus.
1173 Orestes kills Aletes son of Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends his search for Iphigenia
1160 Odysseus is accidentally killed by his son Telegonus
1158 Orestes is told by the Delphic Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arkadia and is killed by a snake bite while founding new cities.
1154 BCDeath of King Menelaus of Sparta
1154 BCSuicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes.
1153 Autesion expelled from Thebes after he defects to the Heraklids.
1153 The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on.
(Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC)
1153 The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes
1150 Demophon dies in Cyprus
1147 BCDemophon King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes.
BCOxyntes King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded
by his elder son Apheidas.
1134 BCApheidas King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year.
1130 The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.
1130 Penthilus the son of Orestes seizes Lesbos
Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus
who becomes king of Athens.
1125 BC: Nebuchadnezzar I became king of Isin; he defeated Shutruk-Nahhunte and united Babylonia under his rule.
Tisamenus the son of Orestes
rules over Mycenae
BC: Tiglath-pileser I became king of Assyria; he defeated Nebuchadnezzar and
reclaimed control of Babylonia, assuming it into the Assyrian Empire.
1113 The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus
1100 Brutus, grandson of Aeneas, leads a group of Trojan exiles to Britain. High Kingship of Brutus, followed by Locrinus, Gwendolen, Maddan, Mempricius, Ebraucus and Brutus Greenshield.
1103 The Heraklids defeat Tsiamneus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese.
(Indications of invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1100 BC. Attack on Asia Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC.)
1100 BCGreek Dark Ages begin.
1089 BCMelanthus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 37 years and is succeeded by his son Codrus.
1068 BC Codrus, King of Athens, dies in battle against Dorian invaders after a reign of 21 years. Athenian tradition considers him the last King to have held absolute power. Modern historians consider him the last King whose life account is part of Greek mythology. He is succeeded by his son Medon.
1000 BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece
1000 BCWorld population: 50,000,000
1000 - 900 BC Earliest hill-top earthworks ("hillforts") begin to appear, also fortified farmsteads; increasing sophistication of arts and crafts, particularly in decorative personal and animal ornamentation.
1000 BC: groups of nomadic peoples, mostly the Aramaeans and Chaldeans, began raiding Babylonia continuously; the Assyrians conquered began to conquer these groups one by one.
863 BC Bath founded
814 circa 760 BC Dido
800 BC rise of Etruscan civilization
776 Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games.
753 BC : Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus : Rome as a kingdom
BC : reign of Romulus
705 or 722 BC: Sennacherib became king of Assyria; he captured and destroyed Babylon, tortured and beheaded prisoners, and enslaved women and children.
660 BC Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule as Emperor of Japan.
660 BC Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland
626 BC: Naabopolassar, a Chaldean, proclaimed himself king of Babylonia and established the Chaldean dynasty; he conquered the Assyrians with the help of his allies, the Medes, the Scythians, and the Cimmerians.
BC - 560 BC Aesop, Greek Poet
616 BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus becomes king of Rome.
605 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II succeeded his father Naabopolassar as king of Babylonia; he conquered all of Mesopotamia, defeated Egyptian invasions, destroyed Jerusalem (586 BC), and rebuilt the city of Babylon as his capital (including the hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the seven ancient wonders).
605 BC - King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.
600 BC: Foundation of Marseille by Phoceans
600 BC: IndiaAge of the Mahajanapadas16 great kingdoms rule IndiaKasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja
BC: Solon appointed archon of Athens; institutes democratic reforms
556 BC: Nabonidus, one of Nebuchadnezzar II's governors, became king of Babylonia; he angered the priestly class of Babylon and sent the empire into a state of civil wars.
550 BC: Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica
539 BC: Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, conquered Babylonia; he added Babylonia into the Persian Empire and ended the Chaldean Dynasty.
534/509 BC: reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king
509 BC Founding of Roman Republic, expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy
506 BC: Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu.
500 B.C. - Emergence of Maya civilization and Adena culture.
500 - 450 BC Odin is recognized as major god of Northern Mysteries replacing the Mother Goddess
La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts, 15 BCE time of mythology)
499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.
BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between
Greece and Persia.
499 BC: Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.
495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.
492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.
490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades.
486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.
BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule.
480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 (popular culture mistakes it for being 300 Spartans but it was also 3000 other Greeks) so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians
BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.
431 BC Peloponnesian War
430 BC A two-year plague begins in Athens.
400 BC- Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece
BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.
399 BC: Socrates is executed in Athens on charges of impiety and corrupting Athenian youth.
390 BC Belinus and Brennus, kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army and sack Rome
387 BC: Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome.
395 BC Corinthian War
340 BC Roman commanders are forbidden to settle warfare by single combat with Celtic Chieftains.
336 Alexander the Great succeeds father, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis
335 BC Celts encounter Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, on the Danube. They exchange pledges of alliance. Large numbers of Celtic warriors join the Greeks in a war against the Etruscans.
BC Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins
of Troy before his siege of Persia.
Great defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes
Great conquers Egypt
331 at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander the Great ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire
the Great conquers the Persian Empire, decline and depopulation of Ancient
Greece with large migrations towards the conquered lands.
Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and
necessity, nothing comes out of nothing
Great conquers Samarkand
327 Alexander the Great invades Northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to march further eastwards.
390 BC : Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls
BC: Seleucus I Nicator establishes himself in Babylon, founding the Seleucid
285 BC Further Celtic hostilities against Rome; massacre on the River Tiber. High Kingship in Britain of Beldgabred.
279 BC Celts invade Greece through Macedonia, temple of Delphi plundered.
264 BC First Punic War
299 BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.
298 BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.
293 BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.
281 BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
280 BC: Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed
BCE Celts invaded Greece
275 BC: End of history of Babylon.
BCE Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).
264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.
BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor
of the Seleucid empire.
260 BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China; a decisive Qin victory.
241 BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, and annexes Sicily and Corsica.
227 BC: The assassination against Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke
from Yan failed.
BC: 225 BC Battle of Telemon; Celts advance on Rome again. Roman army routs
invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy, all Celtic tribes south
of River Po destroyed. From the major Celtic loss at the Battle of Telamon,
Celtic lands come under pressure from the Germanic tribes to the north, and
the spread of Rome. Gallia Cisalpina and southern Gaul are conquered; the
Iberian Peninsula falls by degrees. High Kingship in Britain of Redon.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.
BC: With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of
China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin
218 BC: Second Punic War begins. Hannibal with Celtic mercenaries makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy , the Roman heartland.
216 BC: Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae.
214 BC: Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China.
202 BC Hannibal defeated at Zama by Scipio; extensive Romanization of Celtic tribes begins.
BCE The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands,
Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.
168 BC: Battle of PydnaThe Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans.
149 BC Third Punic War
148 BC: Rome conquers Macedonia.
146 BC: Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
146 BC Battle of Corinth
110 BC High Kingship in Britain of Beli Mawr the Great, who married Don, daughter of Math. They have one daughter, Penarddun who will later marry Llyr. Other children are Amathaon, Nudd, Govannon, Aranrhod, Gilvaethwy and Gwydion. Beli Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of Dyfed. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who is claimed as the founder of Gwent.
107 BC: Roman consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, which remove all ownership restrictions for joining the Roman Army.
100 BC Glass blowing is invented in Roman Syria, Sunspots, first recorded by Chinese,
BCE Rome defeats Celts in Italy.
73 BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War.
68 BC Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to Rome.
67 BC Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates
BCE Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.
BCE Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.
31 BC Battle of Actium
31 BC January 10, 49 BC: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, precipitating war with Rome.
44 BC Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March
31 BC: Roman Civil War: Battle of ActiumOff the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
27 BC: The Roman Senate votes Octavian the title of Augustus. Augustus eventually assumes all authority formerly held by the Roman senate becoming the first emperor. The Roman state is henceforth known as the Roman Empire, and the period from 27 BC to AD 305 as the Principate.
12 BC The death of Cúchulainn marked the end of the Red Branch Knights dominance. As a boy he killed a fierce hound belonging to a man called Culann. The hound was said to be as big as a horse and it took three chains and three men on each chain to hold him.
00 - Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire
9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany
14 Death of Pan
Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor
Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir
Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy
Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor
Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor
43 Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain
CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.
54 Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes emperor
60 The Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the
power of the Celtic druids, attacked Anglesey, destroying the shrine and the
sacred groves. News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory,
causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest. Remaining
druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland
Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.
64 Great Fire of Rome
79 Pompeii destroyed
Karl Briullov (17991852) The Last Day of Pompeii.
80-448 Goidelic High Kings
100- End of 1st century codex replaces the scroll.
105 - Cai Lun of China invents paper
122 construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
125: Zhang Heng of China invents the world's first water-powered armillary sphere
132: Zhang Heng of China invents first seismometer to detect the cardinal direction of earthquakes
168 - Ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye. He also compiles three of the most influential books in western history:
The Almagest which becomes the basis for western and Middle Eastern astronomy until the time of Copernicus and Kepler; The astrological treatise, Tetrabiblos; and the Geographia
200 - Inventions, discoveries, introductions
A primitive form of eyeglasses were developed for a nearsighted princess in
South Pointing Chariot invented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that
acts as a directional compass
early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling, known as the Kongming
lantern was said to be invented by Zhuge Liang.
repeating crossbow or semi-automatic crossbow is an improved version of a
model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is
debate whether the original Warring States Period bow was semi-automatic,
or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge's version could
shoot farther and faster.
sources report that Zhuge Liang invented a primitive land mine type device.
A mysterious but efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for grain) referred to as the "wooden ox and flowing horse" also invented by Zhuge, which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow.
208: the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs.
212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men.
220: The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in ancient China.
265: The Jin Dynasty reunites China under one empire after the conquest of Eastern Wu.
300 Under the Roman Empire, punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State against witches who brought about another person's death through their enchantments.
313 Conversion of Emperor Constantine.
314 The Council of Ancyra imposes five years of penance upon those who consult magicians. Here, the offence lies in participation in paganism.
350 AC The Fenian Cycle these tales revolve around the Fianna, a group of warriors famous for their bravery and skill in battle. They operated in groups of six warriors and were only accepted to the clan after they had undergone strenuous tests to determine their abilities. Finn MacCunaill is the central character during this cycle. One of the most famous tales from this period is about how he acquired his great knowledge. A druid who was one of Finn's teachers caught a fish in the River Boyne that was notable because whoever ate this salmon would know everything that happened in Ireland. After the druid caught the fish, Finn prepared it for him but he burned himself while cooking the fish. Finn licked his wound and immediately gained Wisdom and second sight. With this power, he supposedly foretold the coming of the Danes.
370 Huns invade Eastern Europe
378 Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans fey worship
383 Priscillian of Avila was executed by burning for witchcraft.
395: Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, causing the Roman Empire to split permanently.
395 AD Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location at Salisbury.
390 AD King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of Britain and takes the throne for himself.
406 Visigoths, Suevi and Burgundians cross the Rhine and invade Roman Gaul. Beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
410 Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome
451 Attila the Hun is repelled from Gaul by RomanBarbarian forces at the Battle of Châlons.
455 The Vandals pillage Rome.
476 The last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, is deposed by Odovacar, conventionally ending the Western Roman Empire.
500 - Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland). Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany.
515 Battle of Mons Badonicus. The West Saxon advance is halted by King Arthur.
522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation
529534 Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.
537: The Grail is found by Sir Galahad
537: Battle of Camlann, final battle of King Arthur.
537: The realm of Camelot disappears with Arthur to Avalon (Fey Wild) and continues once he has healed.
541-542: First pandemic of Bubonic Plague (Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople and the rest of Byzantine Empire.
Taliesin, Welsh poet
600 - Events
The world's population shrinks to about 208 million people.
600 AD Beowulf, king of the Geats slays Grendel
600: Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.
613 AD Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern Gaul.
650, The first Chinese Paper money is issued.
670s, Greek fire invented in Constantinople.
786 AD Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan of Persia.
772 804: Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling the Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion, incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire.
785 The Council of Paderborn rules that sorcerers are to be reduced to serfdom and made over to the service of the Church.
793: The first written account of a Viking raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne in northern England.
794 - Vikings attacks the monastery at Yarrow, but fails.
Vikings run assaults on monasteries in Scotland and approach the Irish sea
and attacks on Ireland starts.
797 - Vikings attacks Lambay, Ireland.
798 - Vikings attacks on France begin.
St. Philibert Monastery (France) sacked
Norwegians settle Faroe Islands
800 Gunpowder in Ancient China: Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality.
800 - Skiringsal and Birka trade centers are founded.
802 - Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas on the isle Iona of the Hebrides.
805 - Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas for the second time.
Danes under King Godfred attack Frisia
814: Charlemagne dies
820 - Vikings conquers the Isle of Man and establishes permanently.
820 - Vikings attacks Flanders and approches the moth of river Seine.
- Vikings approaches the river Thames, England.
Danes attack Dorestad, now in the Netherlands
Norwegians over winter in Ireland
839 - Turgeis (Torgisl) and a big Viking fleet conquers Ireland and settles permanently.
841 - Vikings under the leadership of Turgeis founds Dublin, Ireland.
841 - Vikings burns Lillebonne, Caudebec and Rouen and destroys the abbeys of Jumieges and St Wandrille.
843 - Vikings of Vestfold establishes a power base at the isle Noirmountier (Loire) and raids Nates.
844 - A Viking raid on Seville is repulsed.
844 - Turgeis is killed by the Irish, drowned in Loch Nair.
845 - Viking chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok attacks Paris along a big fleet.
Longphorts established in Ireland
Danes spend first winter in England
852: Danes spend first winter in Frankia
853 - Olaf the White conquers Ireland along a big Viking fleet.
853: Norwegian Olaf the White established as king at Dublin
857 - Vikings raids Paris again.
858 - Vikings captures the abbot of St Denis and claims ransome.
859 - Vikings raids in the Mediterranean for the first time.
860 - Rus (Sweds) Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).
861- The third big attack on Paris by Vikings.
862 - Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.
- Xanten demolished by Vikings.
Danish Great Army arrives in East Anglia
866: Norwegian Harald Finehair subjugates Scottish Isles
866 - Danish Vikings establishes the kingdom of York, England.
- Harold Luva (Fairhair) starts his effort to gain full control in Norway.
870: Danes rule over one half of England
871 - Olaf the White returns to Norway, his brother Ivarr becoms ruler of Ireland.
871899 Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, Viking advance is halted in England. Later he becomes the first king of a united England and formed new laws and fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.
873: Ingolf Arnason founds Reykjavik, Iceland
874 - Ivarr the Boneless dies, his sons continues attacks on north-eastern England.
879 - Rurik establishes Kiev as power center of the Kievan Rus' domains.
880s: Norwegian Sigurd the Mighty moves into the Scottish mainland
885 - A huge fleet of Viking ships attacks Paris, but fails in conquering the city.
885 - Harald (Luva) Fairhair finally unites Norway as one kingdom, first in Scandinavia.
886 - Alfred and the Danes splits England under the Danelaw pact.
891 - The Vikings at Noirmountier (France) is finally beaten.
- Turf-Einar, son of Rognwald and half brother of Rollo, becomes earl of Orkney.
900 - Vikings raids in the Mediterranean again.
902 - The Irish regain Dublin from the Vikings, and rule for fifteen years.
Canon Eposcopi, a collection of church laws, appeared. It declared that belief
in witchcraft was heretical.
911 - The Viking chieftain Rollo is granted land by the Frankish king and founds the Duchy of Normandy.
917 - Vikings defeats Dublin by military power and regains the throne.
928 - Kings Æthelstan and Harald Fairhair joins in a treaty to gain control of the Norse Vikings.
930 - The first democracy (Alltinget) of the world is founded at Thingvellir, Iceland, by Vikings.
940 - Harald Fairhair dies and his son Eirik Blood-axe struggle to gain full control of Norway, but fails.
941 - Rus Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).
947 - Eirik Blood-axe, son of Fairhair, gains control of York.
949 - Olaf Crovan defeats Eirik Blood-axe, who flees.
950 - Eirik Blood-axe regains control of York.
954 - Eirik Blood-axe killed at the Battle of Stainmore in York, Vikings defeated by King Edmund.
957 King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.
974 - Emperor Otto II of Germany attacks Denmark, but fails because of Norwegian help.
976 - Maccus Haraldsson, first known king of Man, dies, his brother Gudrød approaches throne.
976 - Angelsey (coast of Wales) is included to the Norse kingdom of Man.
- Vikings starts regular attacks to gain control of England.
984 - Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland and starts settling.
985 - The Jomsvikings attacks Norway, lead by Earl Sigvalde, but is firmly defeated at Hjørungavåg.
Norse farmers led by Erik the Red build a series of small settlements along
Greenland and western North America
986 - Viking ships sails in Newfoundland waters.
991 - Viking chieftain Olaf Tryggvasson, along 93 ships, defeats Byrhtnoth at Maldon (August).
991 - Æthelred II pays, the first Danegeld ransom, off £ 10,000 in silver to stop Viking attck on London.
994 - Æthelred II pays off £16,000 in silver to stop Viking attcks on London.
995 - Olaf Tryggvasson conquers Norway and proclaims a Christian kingdom.
999 - Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland by powers of Olaf Tryggvasson.
1000 High Middle Ages
1000 - Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.
1000 - Olaf Tryggvasson dies in the Battle of Svolder (coast of Vendland); Norway ruled by Danes.
1000 AD By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.
1002 - Brian Boru defeats the Norse Vikings and becomes king of all Ireland.
1009 - Viking chieftain Olaf Haraldsson (St. Olav) attacks London by river and destroys London Bridge.
1010 - Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North America.
1013 - Danes, helped by Olaf Haraldson, conquers England; Æthelred flees to Normandy.
1014 - The Vikings of Ireland are finally defeated in the Battle of Clontarf, but Brian Boru is killed.
1015 - Vikings abandons the Vinland settlements at the coast of North America.
1016 - Olaf Haraldsson regains Norway from the Danes.
1016 - Danes, under Canute the Great, gains full control over England. Cnut named king of England, Denmark and Norway
1018 - The coronation of Canute the Great, as King of England.
1022 Seemingly pious and ascetic mystics were burned as witches in Orleans. They were in fact Devil worshippers who indulged in sex orgies and the murder of children.
1026 - Kings Anund Jakob (Sweden) and Olaf Haraldsson (Norway) attacks Denmark, but fails.
1028 - Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway and Olaf flees.
1030 - Olaf Haraldsson returns to regain Norway, but is killed at Stiklestad.
1035 - Canute the Great dies, Magnus, son of St Olaf, expels the Danes from Norway and regains the kingdom.
1042 - Edward the Confessor rules England, supported by Danes.
1042 - Magnus, king of Norway, becomes king of Denmark.
1045 - Magnus grants Harald Hardraada half of Norway, as a co-king.
1047 - Magnus, king of Norway & Denmark, dies; Hardraada sovereign king of Norway; Claims Denmark as well.
1047 - Svend Estridsson gains control of the Danish throne, but Hardraada won't give up his claim.
1049 - Hardraada founds Oslo, Norway.
1050 - Hardraade raids Haithabu.
1062 - Hardraada defeats Svend Estridsson at the Battle of Nissen, but fails to gain control of Denmark.
1064 - Hardraada gives up Denmark and recognizes Svend Estridsson as legal heir to the throne.
- Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada, who dies in the Battle of Stamford
Bridge (Sep 25th).
1066 William, Duke of Normandy, invades England and defeats Saxon king Harold in the Battle of Hastings (Oct 14th). End of Anglosaxon rule in England and start of Norman lineage
1072 - Vikings conquers Palermo.
1080 Pope Gregory VII writes a letter to King Harold of Denmark forbidding witches to be put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms, failure of crops or pestilence.
1085 - Danish Vikings makes a final attempt to conquer England but fails.
1086 The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first such undertaking since Roman times.
1096-1099 First Crusade
Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date (1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot's Les Passages d'Outremer.
1100 AD Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.
1102 Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London
1141 Hugh of St. Victor wrote Didascalicon, which included a strong denunciation of using or studying magic:
Magic was not accepted as part of philosophy, but stands with a false claim outside it; the mistress of every form of iniquity and malice, lying about the truth and truly infecting men's minds, it seduces them from divine religion, prompts them from the cult of demons, fosters corruption of morals, and impels the minds of its devotees to every wicked and criminal indulgence. ... sorcerers were those who, with demonic incantations or amulets or any other execrable types of remedies, by the cooperation of the devils or by evil instinct, perform wicked things.
University of Paris founded
Frederick I Barbarossa
1158 foundation of the Hanseatic League
Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood
University of Oxford founded
reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire
1193 The first known merchant guild.
Slavery virtually disappears in Japan; it was never widespread and mostly
involved captives taken in civil wars.
1205 battle of Adrianople
1206 Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Orcs and the Orc Empire was established. The Orcs would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political borders.
University of Cambridge founded
1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade
1215 The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.
1222 University of Padua founded
1223 Battle of the Kalka River
In Germany, the secular law code "Sachsenspiegel" designated death
by fire as the proper punishment for witchcraft.
1231 Conrad of Marburg was appointed as the first Inquisitor of Germany, setting a pattern of persecution. In his reign of terror, he claimed to have uncovered many nests of "Devil worshippers" and adopted the motto of:
We would gladly burn a hundred if just one of them was guilty.
1233 Pope Gregory IX proclaimed Conrad of Marburg a champion of Christendom and promoted his findings in the Papal Bull Vox in Rama.
Orc invasion of Rus'
1241-1242 Orc invasion of Europe
1241 Battle of Legnica
Nevruy's horde devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal.
1257 foundation of the Collège de Sorbonne
Pope Alexander IV instructs, "The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate
heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without
knowledge of manifest heresy involved." "Manifest heresy" is
defined as: "praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to
consult demons, to elicit responses from them... or associate themselves publicly
1258/1259 Orc attacks against Danylo of Halych, led by Burundai.
the Byzantine Empire reconquers Constantinople.
Orc twice attacked Novgorod territory, devastating Vologda and Bezhitsa.
Orcs devastated Smolensk.
1275 Orc invasion of south-eastern Rus', Kursk pillaged.
The first "witch" is burned to death after judicial sentence of
an inquisitor, in Toulouse, France. Her name was Hugues de Baniol and she
"confessed" to having given birth to a monster after intercourse
with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies' flesh which she
procured in her nocturnal expeditions.
Orcs pillaged the Ryazan Principality.
1280 First appearances of witchs riding brooms.
1280 death of Albertus Magnus
The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday sacked Murom and Pereslavl-Zalessky, ruined
vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev-Polsky, Tver and Torzhok.
1282 Orcs attacked Vladimir and Pereslavl-Zalessky.
1282: Mechanization of papermaking (paper mill)
1282 - Llywellyn, the Last, one of the last remaining original Celts was executed for treason by Edward Longshanks.
Orcs sacked Vorgolsk, Rylsk, and Lipetsk, overrunning Kursk and Vorgol.
1285 The Orc warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom.
1291 Acre, the last European outpost in the Middle East, is captured by the Mamluks under Khalil.
1293 The Orc warlord Dyuden came to Rus and pillaged fourteen towns, including Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Mozhaysk, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and Uglitch. During the same summer Takhtamir looted the Tver principality and took slaves in the Vladimir principality.
1295 Marco Polo publishes his tales of China. A key step to the bridging of East and West
1297 William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.
1299 Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire.
Beginning of the witch trials in Europe.
Tatars pillaged the Ryazan principality.
Tatars pillaged Torzhok in the Novgorod principality as well as Rostov
Tatars devastated the Tver principality
1318 Tatars sacked Kostroma and Rostov
1315 Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that "France" signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed
Pope John XXII authorized the Inquisition to began persecuting sorcery and
death of Dante Alighieri
1322 Tatars devastated Yaroslavl
1324 - 1325 Lady Alice Kyteler, her son and associates in Kilkenny, Ireland, were tried for witchcraft. For the first time, stories of mating with demons were linked with stories of pacts with Satan. Lady Alice escaped to England, but others were burned.
The Golden Horde organised a punitive expedition to the Tver principality
1334 Large-scale witch trial in Toulouse, France, in which 63 persons were accused. Of these, eight were handed over to the state to be burned and the rest were imprisoned.
1335 Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.
1337 to 1453 The Hundred Years' War. England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe.
Hundred Years' War montage
Montage of paintings representing key battles of the Hundred Years' War. Clockwise, from top left: Crécy, La Rochelle, Agincourt, Orléans.
|1337, November||Battle of Cadsand: initiates hostilities. The Flemish defenders of the island were thrown into disorder by the first use of the English longbow on Continental soil.|
1340, June 24
|Battle of Sluys: Edward III destroys the Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI of France off the coast of Flanders ensuring England will not be invaded and that the majority of the war will be fought in France.|
1345, October 21
|Battle of Auberoche: a longbow victory by Henry, Earl of Derby against a French army at Auberoche in Gascony.|
1346, August 26
|Battle of Crécy: English longbowmen soundly defeat French cavalry near the river Somme in Picardy. The dead included King John of Bohemia, Duke of Lorraine, the Count of Flanders, the Count of Alençon, the Count of Blois, the Viscount Rohan, the Lord of Laval, the Lord of Chateaubriant, the Lord of Dinan, the Lord of Redon, 1,542 knights, 2,300 Genoese and 10,000 infantry.|
1346, September 41347, August 3
|Siege of Calais: Calais falls under English control.|
1350, August 29
|Les Espagnols sur Mer: English fleet defeats Castilian fleet in a close fight.|
1351, March 26
|Combat of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir call out and defeat thirty English and pro-English Breton knights under Pembroke and Sir Robert Bramborough, Bramborough was killed.|
|French army under De Nesle defeated by English under Bentley at Mauron in Brittany, De Nesle killed.|
1356, September 19
|Battle of Poitiers: Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France, France plunged into chaos. Casualties on the French side were 2,500 killed or wounded, 2,000 captured, John II, 17 lords, 13 counts, 5 viscounts and over 100 knights.|
1364, September 29
|Battle of Auray: End of Breton War of Succession. Charles of Blois, Duke of Brittany was killed; the Count of Auxerre and Bertrand Du Guesclin were captured.|
1367, April 3
|Battle of Nájera: the Black Prince defeats a Castilian/French army at Nájera in Castile.|
1370, December 3
|Battle of Pontvallain: Bertrand du Guesclin routs an English raiding army, ending the English reputation for invincibility in open battle.|
1372, June 22
|Battle of La Rochelle: Castilian-French fleet defeats the English fleet, leading to loss of dominance at sea and French piracy and coastal raids. John of Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, was captured along with 400 knights and 8,000 soldiers.|
|Castilian fleet commanded by Fernando Sánchez de Tovar sacks and burns English Channel ports, and Gravesend on the Thames.|
|Battle of Aljubarrota: Nuno Álvares Pereira, commanding a small Portuguese-English army, defeats the Castilian-French forces in Portugal.|
|Jean de Vienne, having successfully strengthened the French naval situation, lands an army in Scotland, but is forced to retreat.|
1415, October 25
|Battle of Agincourt: English longbowmen under Henry V defeat the French under Charles d'Albret. Captured French nobles included Marshal of France Jean Le Maingre, Charles, Duke of Orléans, John I, Duke of Bourbon and Louis, Count of Vendôme. Killed on the French side were Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Philip of Burgundy, Count of Nevers and Rethel, Charles I d'Albret, Count of Dreux, the Constable of France; John II, Count of Bethune, John I, Duke of Alençon, Frederick of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont, Robert, Count of Marles and Soissons, Edward III of Bar (the Duchy of Bar lost its independence as a consequence of his death) and John VI, Count of Roucy, Jean I de Croÿ and two of his sons, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, Jan I van Brederode, George Edward Stewart III, and the (Scottish) Lord of Shetland. Other noble prisoners totalling about 1,500 were taken. Overall, between 7,000 and 10,000 French were killed. On the English side, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk were killed, among at least 112 dead and an unknown number of wounded.|
|English defeat numerically greater French army at Valmont near Harfleur.|
|English naval victory in the River Seine under Bedford.|
1418, July 311419, January 19
|Siege of Rouen: Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.|
|Battle of La Rochelle: Franco-Castilian fleet defeats Anglo-Hanseatic fleet.|
1421, March 22
|Battle of Bauge: The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII, commanded by the Earl of Buchan, defeat an outmanoeuvred English force commanded by the Duke of Clarence. English nobles captured included John Beaufort, 3rd Earl of Somerset, Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter and Lord Fitz Walter. Killed were Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville, John de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros and Sir Gilbert de Umfraville.|
1423, July 31
|Battle of Cravant: The Franco-Scottish army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. On the French/Scottish side, 6,000 were killed and 2,000 captured, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Louis, Count of Vendôme.|
1424, August 17
|Battle of Vernuil: The Franco-Scottish forces are decisively defeated, losing 4,000 dead, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas|
1426, March 6
|French besieging army under Arthur de Richemont dispersed by a small force under Sir Thomas Rempstone in "The Rout of St James" in Brittany.|
|1428, October 121429, May 8||Siege of Orléans: English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Suffolk, and Talbot (Earl of Shrewsbury) lay siege to Orleans, and are forced to withdraw after a relief army accompanied by Joan of Arc arrives at the city.|
1429, February 12
|Battle of the Herrings: English force under Sir John Fastolf defeats French and Scottish armies.|
1429, July 17
|Battle of Patay: In a reverse of Agincourt/Crécy, a French army under La Hire, Richemont, Joan of Arc, and other commanders break through English archers under Lord Talbot and then pursue and mop up the other sections of the English army, killing or capturing about half (2,200) of their troops. John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Walter, Lord Hungerford are captured.|
|Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War|
|1431||Trial of Joan of Arc took place and included allegations of witchcraft.|
|Battle of Gerbevoy: La Hire defeats an English force under Arundel.|
|French forces take Paris.|
1450, April 15
|Battle of Formigny: A French force under the Comte de Clermont defeats an English force under Thomas Kyriell.|
|French forces conquer Gascony.|
1453, July 17
|Battle of Castillon: Jean Bureau defeats Talbot to end the Hundred Years' War. This was also the first battle in European history where the use of cannon was a major factor in determining the outcome. John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury was killed in battle.|
Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20%
- 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.
1347 The University of Prague is founded.
1365, 1373 Tatars sacked the Ryazan principality
1361 The fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued to rule Orcia. The breakup of the Orc Empire, which marked the end of Pax Orcica.
Tatars attacked the southeastern suburb of Nizhniy Novgorod
and 1378 Tatars attacked the Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan principalities
1380 Dmitri Donskoi defeated Tatars at Battle of Kulikovo
Peasants' Revolt in England.
1382 Khan Tokhtamysh burns down Moscow, tens of thousands of its citizens died
Tatars attacked Vyatka
1398 The theology faculty at the University of Paris declared that all forms of magic or divination involved some sort of pact with the devil and were thus heresy, justifying the persecution of every possible sort of witchcraft.
1399 Tatars attacked Nizhniy Novgorod
Peter de Gruyères, a secular judge, carries out large-scale witch trials
in Bern, Switzerland.
1403: The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire.
Tatars sacked Serpukhov, as well as the vicinities of Moscow, Pereyaslavl,
Rostov, Yuriev, Dmitrov, Nizhni Novgorod and Galich
Tatars ruined Vladimir
1410: The Battle of Grunwald was the decisive battle of the PolishLithuanianTeutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights.
Tatars devastated Elets
Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.
1425: Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope Martin V.
Witch trials of Brianqon took place in the Dauphine. About 167 local people
were burned as witches between 1428 and 1450.
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich and Kostroma
1431 January 1 August 1503 Pope Alexander VI (Roderic Borgia)
1435-50 Number of witch trails rises sharply.
1439: Printing press
Tatar incursions into the vicinities of Moscow and Kolomna
1440 Notorious trial of Gilles de Rais, who was accused of witchcraft and debaucheries.
Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave
trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.
Tatars looted the outskirts of Ryazan, but were repelled from the city proper
Tatars attacked Nizhni Novgorod and Suzdal
1449, 1451, 1455, 1459 Tatars looted the outskirts of Moscow
Machu Picchu constructed.
The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death
of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI and the beginning of the Growth of
the Ottoman Empire.
14551485: Wars of the Roses English civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster.
1456 – 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula
14671615: The Sengoku period is one of civil war in Japan.
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich
1470 March 12 Wars of the Roses Battle of Lose-coat Field: The House of York defeats the House of Lancaster.
A rebellion orchestrated by King Edward's former ally, the Earl of
Warwick, forces the King to flee England to seek support from his brother-in-law
Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
October 30 Warwick releases Henry VI of England from the Tower and restores him to the throne.
Leonardo da Vinci is listed as a master in Florence's "Company of Artists".
1472 Tatars plundered Aleksin
1473 February 19 24 May 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus
1475 September 13 12 March 1507 Cesare Borgia
April 18 - 24 June 1519 Lucrezia Borgia
1480 The Great stand on the Ugra river marks the end of the Tatar-Orc yoke in Russia
14801540 Dr Johann Georg Faust
1481: Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé.
1484 Pope Innocent VIII publishes the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus ("Desiring with the Greatest Ardor") condemning witchcraft as the worst of all possible heresies. The bull also officially grants Heinrich Krämer and James Sprenger, Dominican inquisitors, the right to prosecute persons of any class or any form of crime.
Henry VII defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes King of
1486 Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger publish Malleus maleficarum ("The Hammer of Witches"), a learned but misogynistic book blaming witchcraft chiefly on women. It was reprinted many times thanks to the newly-invented printing press and was a major influence on the witch-hunt hysteria of the next two centuries. It was regarded as the standard handbook on witchcraft until well into the 18th century.
In their opinion, witchcraft was based upon sexual lust:
All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which was in women insatiable.
In an interesting twist, it was now declared that not believing in witches was heresy:
A belief that there were such things as witches was so essential a part of Catholic faith that obstinately to maintain the opposite opinion savours of heresy.
1488 Papal Bull was issued, calling upon European nations to rescue the church because it was "imperiled by the arts of Asmodeus."
1490 King Charles VIII issued an edict against fortunetellers, enchanters, necromancers and others engaging in any sort of witchcraft.
1492, October 12 Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.
1492: Jews expelled from Spain.
1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin. Italian Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope's ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India and Africa.
1500 Late Middle Ages
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria dell' Accademia, Venice (1485-90)
Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science. European
civilization began to change beginning in 1500, leading to the scientific
and industrial revolutions. That continent began to exert political and cultural
dominance over human societies around the planet.
1501 October 30 The Banquet of Chestnuts is held by Cesare Borgia in the Papal Palace of Rome.
1507 Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa.
Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) The Mona Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda).
1508 Mass witch trials in Biarn occurred.
1509 England - Henry VIII crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon.
1529 Inquisitorial witchcraft trials took place at Luxeuil.
Prosecutions for witchcraft begin in Mexico.
The penal code Carolina decrees that sorcery throughout the German empire
should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it injured any person, the
penalties of torture and death for the witch was to be burned at the stake.
Henry VIII issued a statute against witchcraft.
1547 Repeal of statute of 1542 during the reign of Edward VI.
1557 Toulouse witch trials took place, during which forty witches were condemned and burned.
1558 England - Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne
La reine Élisabeth Ire d'Angleterre dans sa robe de couronnement, à motifs de roses de Tudor et ourlée d'hermine. Ses cheveux sont libres sur ses épaules, comme de tradition pour le couronnement des reines, et peut être aussi comme symbole de virginité. La peinture, d'un auteur inconnu, date de la première décennie du XVIIe siècle. C'est une copie d'un original lui aussi d'auteur inconnu, et perdu.
1563 Queen Elizabeth issued a statute against witchcraft.
Johan Weyer wrote De Praestigiis Daemonum. This book described his belief that witches were just mentally disturbed old women and that it was the belief in witches which was caused by Asmodeus. He was forced to leave the Netherlands and his book was denounced by Jean Bodin.
Council of Trent resolved to win back Germany from Protestantism to the Catholic
Church; intensification of religious struggles and persecutions results.
1566 The first Chelmsford witch trials. This trial was the first to appear in a secular court in England and resulted in the first woman being hanged for witchcraft, Agnes Waterhouse. This trial also produced the first chapbook, or tabloid newspaper, relating to witchcraft.
The Protestant ruler of Saxony imposes the penalty of burning for witchcraft
of every kind, including fortune-telling.
The Windsor witch trials; also the second Chelmsford trials.
1580 Jean Bodin, a French judge, published Daemonomanie des Sorciers condemning witches. According to Bodin, those denying the existence of witches were actually witches themselves.
Period in which witch-hunts are most severe.
1582 St. Osyth Witches of Essex (case tried at Chelmsford).
1584 Miyamoto Musashi is born.
1589 England - Third Chelmsford witch trials.
1589 France- Fourteen convicted witches at Tours appealed to King Henry III, who was in turn accused of protecting witches.
1590 William V began a witch hunt in Bavaria.
1590-91 Scotland - The North Berwick witch trials began when an alleged coven of witches was exposed, resulting in Scotland's most celebrated witch trials and executions. King James VI (who became James I of England), a devout believer in witches, even took part in the proceedings. The torture applied to the victims was among the most brutal in Scotland's entire history of witchcraft prosecution.
1592 Father Cornelius Loos wrote of those arrested and accused of witchcraft:
Wretched creatures were compelled by the severity of the torture to confess things they have never done... and so by the cruel butchery innocent lives were taken; and, by a new alchemy, gold and silver are coined from human blood.
Warboys witches of Huntingdon were put on trial.
Publication of Demonology by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England).
1604 England - James I released his statute against witchcraft, in which he wrote that they were "loathe to confess without torture."
1605: Newspaper invented
1609 In response to a witch panic in the Basque region, La Suprema (the ruling body of the Spanish Inquisition) issues an "Edict of Silence" forbidding all discussion of witchcraft. For, as one inquisitor noted, "There were neither witches nor bewitched until they were talked and written about."
1612 England - Lancashire witch trials.
1614 August The trial of Elizabeth Bathory, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls.
Start of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) during which the witch hunt throughout
Germany was at its height.
Case of the Bilson Boy (William Perry).
Start of general decline of witch trials in France.
Trial of Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, for witchcraft.
Publication of Cautio Criminalis by Friedrich von Spee, opposing the witch
1632 Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg marked the end of the persecutions in this principality (1609-1632).
1645 Case of the Faversham witches, Kent Witchfinder-general Matthew Hopkins and the Chelmsford (or Manningtree) witch trials.
1646 Death of Matthew Hopkins from tuberculosis.
1647 Publication of Discovery of Witches by Matthew Hopkins.
1647 First hanging for witchcraft in New England.
1649 Case of the St. Albans witches, Hertfordshire.
1652 "Dr. Lamb's Darling": the trial of Anne Bodenham and the trial of the Wapping Witch (Joan Peterson) near London.
1655 Last execution for witchcraft in Cologne (where persecution was already less severe).
1662 The Bury St. Edmunds witch trials.
1666 Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September
Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.
1668-76 Outbreak of witch-hunts in Sweden.
1670 France- Rouen witch trials.
1674 Trial of Anne Foster in Northampton.
1679 - 1682 The notorious Chanibre d'ardente affair: Louis XIV's star chamber investigated poison plots and heared evidence of widespread corruption and witchcraft. More than 300 people were arrested and 36 executed. The affair ended with a royal edict which denied the reality of witchcraft and sorcery.
1684 Last execution for witchcraft in England (Alice Molland at Exeter).
1688 Salem, Massachusetts. - The behavior of several children in the home of the Goodwin family in Boston results in the accusation, trial and execution of their Irish washerwoman, Ann Glover (also known as "Goody Glover"), for witchcraft.
1692 Between May and October, 19 people are tried and hanged as witches in Salem, Massachusetts.
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