Timeline

13.8 billion years ago (The Big Bang)

13.1 billion years ago The first stars form

13.23 billion years ago Early galaxies form

4.7.4 billion years ago Formation of our Solar System

The Earth Forms 4.5 Billion – 350 Million

Deep Time 359mil- 12,000

Neolithic 12,000 (“New Stone Age”)

Copper Age 7000

Bronze Age 3300

1000 World Human population: 50,000,000

Europe

South Asia (1200–200 BC)

East Asia (500 BC – 300 AD)

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

550 BC: Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica

539 BC: Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, conquered Babylonia; he added Babylonia into the Persian Empire and ended the Chaldean Dynasty.

534/509 BC: reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king

509 BC Founding of Roman Republic, expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy

506 BC: Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu.

500 B.C. – Emergence of Maya civilization and Adena culture.

500 – 450 BC Odin is recognized as major god of Northern Mysteries replacing the Mother Goddess

500- La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts, 15 BCE time of mythology)

499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.

499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia.

499 BC: Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.

495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.

492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades.

486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.

486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule.

480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 (popular culture mistakes it for being 300 Spartans but it was also 3000 other Greeks) so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians

450 BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.

431 BC Peloponnesian War

430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.

400 BC- Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece

400 BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.

399 BC: Socrates is executed in Athens on charges of impiety and corrupting Athenian youth.

390 BC – Belinus and Brennus, kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army
and sack Rome

387 BC: Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome.

395 BC Corinthian War

340 BC Roman commanders are forbidden to settle warfare by single combat with Celtic Chieftains.

336 – Alexander the Great succeeds father, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis

335- Celts encounter Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, on the Danube. They exchange pledges of alliance. Large numbers of Celtic warriors join the Greeks in a war against the Etruscans.

334 – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins of Troy before his siege of Persia.

333 Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes

332 Alexander the Great conquers Egypt

331 at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander the Great ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire

330 Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire, decline and depopulation of Ancient Greece with large migrations towards the conquered lands.

330 Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing

329 Alexander the Great conquers Samarkand

327 Alexander the Great invades Northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to march further eastwards.

390 Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls

312 Seleucus I Nicator establishes himself in Babylon, founding the Seleucid Empire.

285 Further Celtic hostilities against Rome; massacre on the River Tiber. High Kingship in Britain of Beldgabred.

279 Celts invade Greece through Macedonia, temple of Delphi plundered.

264 First Punic War

299 The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.

298 The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.

293 The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.

281 Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.

280 Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed

279 Celts invaded Greece

275 End of history of Babylon.

270 Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).

264 First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.

261
BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor
of the Seleucid empire.

260
BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in
China; a decisive Qin victory.

241
BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations,
and annexes Sicily and Corsica.


227 BC: The assassination against Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke
from Yan failed.

225
BC: 225 BC Battle of Telemon; Celts advance on Rome again. Roman army routs
invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy, all Celtic tribes south
of River Po destroyed. From the major Celtic loss at the Battle of Telamon,
Celtic lands come under pressure from the Germanic tribes to the north, and
the spread of Rome. Gallia Cisalpina and southern Gaul are conquered; the
Iberian Peninsula falls by degrees. High Kingship in Britain of Redon.

225
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.

223
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.

222
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.

221
BC: With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of
China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin
Dynasty.

218 BC: Second Punic War begins. Hannibal with Celtic mercenaries makes his
famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy , the Roman heartland.

216 Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae.

214 Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China.

202 Hannibal defeated at Zama by Scipio; extensive Romanization of Celtic tribes begins.

200 The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.

168: Battle of Pydna—The Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans.

149 Third Punic War

148 Rome conquers Macedonia.

146 Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

146 Battle of Corinth

135 First Servile War

110 High Kingship in Britain of Beli Mawr the Great, who married Don, daughter of Math. They have one daughter, Penarddun who will later marry Llyr. Other children are Amathaon, Nudd, Govannon, Aranrhod, Gilvaethwy and Gwydion. Beli Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of Dyfed. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who is claimed as the founder of Gwent.

107 Roman consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, which remove all ownership restrictions for joining the Roman Army.

100 Glass blowing is invented in Roman Syria, Sunspots, first recorded by Chinese,

82 Rome defeats Celts in Italy.

73 A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War.

68 Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to Rome.

67 Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates

55 Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.

52 Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.

31 BC Battle of Actium

31 January 10, 49 BC: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, precipitating war with Rome.

44 Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March

31 Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium—Off the western coast of Greece,forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

27 The Roman Senate votes Octavian the title of Augustus. Augustus eventually assumes all authority formerly held by the Roman senate becoming the first emperor. The Roman state is henceforth known as the Roman Empire, and the period from 27 BC to AD 305 as the Principate.

12 The death of Cúchulainn marked the end of the Red Branch Knights dominance. As a boy he killed a fierce hound belonging to a man called Culann. The hound was said to be as big as a horse and it took three chains and three men on each chain to hold him.

00- Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire

9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany

14– Death of Pan

14–Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor

25–Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir

26– Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy

37– Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor

41–
Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor

43–
Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain

43-409
CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.

47
London founded

54–
Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes
emperor


60– The Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the
power of the Celtic druids, attacked Anglesey, destroying the shrine and the
sacred groves. News of Boudica’s revolt reached him just after his victory,
causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest. Remaining
druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland

60/61–
Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.

64–
Great Fire of Rome

79
Pompeii destroyed

Karl Briullov (1799–1852) The Last Day of Pompeii.

Karl Briullov (1799–1852) The Last Day
of Pompeii.

80-448 Goidelic High Kings

100-
End of 1st century – codex replaces the scroll.

105
– Cai Lun of China invents paper

122–
construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins

125:
Zhang Heng of China invents the world’s first water-powered armillary sphere

132:
Zhang Heng of China invents first seismometer to detect the cardinal direction
of earthquakes

168
– Ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye. He also
compiles three of the most influential books in western history:

The
Almagest which becomes the basis for western and Middle Eastern astronomy
until the time of Copernicus and Kepler; The astrological treatise, Tetrabiblos;
and the Geographia

200
– Inventions, discoveries, introductions


A primitive form of eyeglasses were developed for a nearsighted princess in Syria.

The South Pointing Chariot invented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that acts as a directional compass

An early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling was invented by Zhuge Liang.

The repeating crossbow an improved version of a model that first appeared during the Warring States Period

Zhuge Liang invented a primitive land mine type device.

A mysterious but efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for grain) referred to as the “wooden ox and flowing horse” also invented by Zhuge, which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow.

208: the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs.

212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men.

220: The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in ancient China.

265: The Jin Dynasty reunites China under one empire after the conquest of Eastern Wu.

300 Under the Roman Empire, punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State against witches who brought about another person’s death through their enchantments.

306 Council of Elvira refuses last rites to those who had killed a man by a magical spell because such a crime could not be effected “without idolatry” (i.e. the help of Devils and Demons).

313 Conversion of Emperor Constantine.

314 The Council of Ancyra imposes five years of penance upon those who consult magicians. Here, the offence lies in participation in paganism.

350 The Fenian Cycle these tales revolve around the Fianna, a group of warriors famous for their bravery and skill in battle. They operated in groups of six warriors and were only accepted to the clan after they had undergone strenuous tests to determine their abilities. Finn MacCunaill is the central character during this cycle. One of the most famous tales from this period is about how he acquired his great knowledge. A druid who was one of Finn’s teachers caught a fish in the River Boyne that was notable because whoever ate this salmon would know everything that happened in Ireland. After the druid caught the fish, Finn prepared it for him but he burned himself while cooking the
fish. Finn licked his wound and immediately gained Wisdom and second sight.
With this power, he supposedly foretold the coming of the Danes.

370
Huns invade Eastern Europe

378
– Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans fey worship

383
Priscillian of Avila was executed by burning for witchcraft.

395:
Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, causing the Roman Empire to split permanently.


395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location
at Salisbury.


390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants
of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of
Britain and takes the throne for himself.

400
AD – King Gunther of Burgundy takes over land down river on the Rhine
and meets Siegfried, son of King Sigmund. Siegfried helps Gunther win the hand of Brynhild.

406 – Visigoths, Suevi and Burgundians cross the Rhine and invade Roman Gaul. Beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

410 — Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome

451 Attila the Hun is repelled from Gaul by Roman–Barbarian forces at the Battle of Châlons.

455 The Vandals pillage Rome.

476 The last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, is deposed by Odovacar, conventionally ending the Western Roman Empire.

500 – Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland). Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany.

515 Battle of Mons Badonicus. The West Saxon advance is halted by King Arthur.

522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation

529—534
Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal
writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.

537:
The Grail is found by Sir Galahad

537:
Battle of Camlann, final battle of King
Arthur
.

537:
The realm of Camelot disappears with Arthur to Avalon (Fey Wild) and continues
once he has healed.

541-542:
First pandemic of Bubonic
Plague
(Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople
and the rest of Byzantine Empire.

Significant persons

Taliesin, Welsh poet

600- The world’s population shrinks to about 208 million people.

600
AD Beowulf, king of the Geats slays
Grendel

600:
Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.

613
AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern
Gaul.

650,
The first Chinese Paper money is issued.

670s, Greek fire invented in Constantinople.

786 Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan of Persia.

768–814 Charlemagne

772– 804: Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling the Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion, incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire.

785 The Council of Paderborn rules that sorcerers are to be reduced to serfdom and made over to the service of the Church.

793 The first written account of a Viking raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne in northern England.

794 Vikings attacks the monastery at Yarrow, but fails.

795 Vikings run assaults on monasteries in Scotland and approach the Irish sea and attacks on Ireland starts.

797 Vikings attacks Lambay, Ireland.

798 Vikings attacks on France begin.

799 St. Philibert Monastery (France) sacked

800 Norwegians settle Faroe Islands

800 Gunpowder in Ancient China: Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic consensus, discovered by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality.

800 Skiringsal and Birka trade centers are founded.

802 Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas on the isle Iona of the Hebrides.

805 Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas for the second time.

810 Danes under King Godfred attack Frisia

814 Charlemagne dies

820 Vikings conquers the Isle of Man and establishes permanently.

820 Vikings attacks Flanders and approches the moth of river Seine.

834 Vikings approaches the river Thames, England.

834 Danes attack Dorestad, now in the Netherlands

841 Norwegians over winter in Ireland

839
– Turgeis (Torgisl) and a big Viking fleet conquers Ireland and settles permanently.

841
– Vikings under the leadership of Turgeis founds Dublin, Ireland.

841 – Vikings burns Lillebonne, Caudebec and Rouen and destroys the abbeys of
Jumieges and St Wandrille.

843 – Vikings of Vestfold establishes a power base at the isle Noirmountier (Loire)
and raids Nates.

844 – A Viking raid on Seville is repulsed.

844 – Turgeis is killed by the Irish, drowned in Loch Nair.

845 – Viking chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok attacks Paris along a big fleet.

850: Longphorts established in Ireland

850: Danes spend first winter in England

852: Danes spend first winter in Frankia

853 – Olaf the White conquers Ireland along a big Viking fleet.

853: Norwegian Olaf the White established as king at Dublin

857 – Vikings raids Paris again.

858 – Vikings captures the abbot of St Denis and claims ransome.

859 – Vikings raids in the Mediterranean for the first time.

860 – Rus (Sweds) Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

861-
The third big attack on Paris by Vikings.

862
– Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.

863
– Xanten demolished by Vikings.

865:
Danish Great Army arrives in East Anglia

866:
Norwegian Harald Finehair subjugates Scottish Isles

866
– Danish Vikings establishes the kingdom of York, England.

870
– Harold Luva (Fairhair) starts his effort to gain full control in Norway.

870:
Danes rule over one half of England

871
– Olaf the White returns to Norway, his brother Ivarr becoms ruler of Ireland.

871–899
Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, Viking advance is halted in England.
Later he becomes the first king of a united England and formed new laws and
fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.

873:
Ingolf Arnason founds Reykjavik, Iceland

874
– Ivarr the Boneless dies, his sons continues attacks on north-eastern England.

879
– Rurik establishes Kiev as power center of the Kievan Rus’ domains.

880s:
Norwegian Sigurd the Mighty moves into the Scottish mainland

885
– A huge fleet of Viking ships attacks Paris, but fails in conquering the
city.

885- Harald (Luva) Fairhair finally unites Norway as one kingdom, first in Scandinavia.

886 – Alfred and the Danes splits England under the Danelaw pact.

891- The Vikings at Noirmountier (France) is finally beaten.

894 – Turf-Einar, son of Rognwald and half brother of Rollo, becomes earl of Orkney.

900 – Vikings raids in the Mediterranean again.

902 – The Irish regain Dublin from the Vikings, and rule for fifteen years.

906 – Canon Eposcopi, a collection of church laws, appeared. It declared that belief in witchcraft was heretical.

911 – The Viking chieftain Rollo is granted land by the Frankish king and founds the Duchy of Normandy.

917 – Vikings defeats Dublin by military power and regains the throne.

928 – Kings Æthelstan and Harald Fairhair joins in a treaty to gain control of the Norse Vikings.

930 – The first democracy (Alltinget) of the world is founded at Thingvellir, Iceland, by Vikings.

940 – Harald Fairhair dies and his son Eirik Blood-axe struggle to gain full control of Norway, but fails.

941 – Rus Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

947 – Eirik Blood-axe, son of Fairhair, gains control of York.

949 – Olaf Crovan defeats Eirik Blood-axe, who flees.

950 – Eirik Blood-axe regains control of York.

954 – Eirik Blood-axe killed at the Battle of Stainmore in York, Vikings defeated by King Edmund.

957 – King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.

974 – Emperor Otto II of Germany attacks Denmark, but fails because of Norwegian help.

976 – Maccus Haraldsson, first known king of Man, dies, his brother Gudrød approaches throne.

976 – Angelsey (coast of Wales) is included to the Norse kingdom of Man.

980 – Vikings starts regular attacks to gain control of England.

984 – Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland and starts settling.

985 – The Jomsvikings attacks Norway, lead by Earl Sigvalde, but is firmly defeated at Hjørungavåg.

985: Norse farmers led by Erik the Red build a series of small settlements along Greenland and western North America

986 – Viking ships sails in Newfoundland waters.

991 – Viking chieftain Olaf Tryggvasson, along 93 ships, defeats Byrhtnoth at Maldon (August).

991 – Æthelred II pays, the first Danegeld ransom, off £ 10,000 in silver to stop Viking attack on London.

994 – Æthelred II pays off £16,000 in silver to stop Viking attacks on London.

995 – Olaf Tryggvasson conquers Norway and proclaims a Christian kingdom.

999 – Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland by powers of Olaf Tryggvasson.

1000 High Middle Ages

1000 – Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.

1000 – Olaf Tryggvasson dies in the Battle of Svolder (coast of Vendland); Norway ruled by Danes.

1000 – By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.

1002 – Brian Boru defeats the Norse Vikings and becomes king of all Ireland.

1009 – Viking chieftain Olaf Haraldsson (St. Olav) attacks London by river and destroys London Bridge.

1010 – Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North America.

1013 – Danes, helped by Olaf Haraldson, conquers England; Æthelred flees to Normandy.

1014
– The Vikings of Ireland are finally defeated in the Battle of Clontarf, but
Brian Boru is killed.

1015
– Vikings abandons the Vinland settlements at the coast of North America.

1016
– Olaf Haraldsson regains Norway from the Danes.

1016
– Danes, under Canute the Great, gains full control over England. Cnut named
king of England, Denmark and Norway

1018
– The coronation of Canute the Great, as King of England.

1022
Seemingly pious and ascetic mystics were burned as witches in Orleans. They
were in fact Devil worshippers who indulged in sex orgies and the murder of
children.

1026
– Kings Anund Jakob (Sweden) and Olaf Haraldsson (Norway) attacks Denmark,
but fails.

1028
– Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway and Olaf flees.

1030
– Olaf Haraldsson returns to regain Norway, but is killed at Stiklestad.

1035
– Canute the Great dies, Magnus, son of St Olaf, expels the Danes from Norway
and regains the kingdom.

1042
– Edward the Confessor rules England, supported by Danes.

1042
– Magnus, king of Norway, becomes king of Denmark.

1045
– Magnus grants Harald Hardraada half of Norway, as a co-king.

1047
– Magnus, king of Norway & Denmark, dies; Hardraada sovereign king of
Norway; Claims Denmark as well.

1047
– Svend Estridsson gains control of the Danish throne, but Hardraada won’t
give up his claim.

1049
– Hardraada founds Oslo, Norway.

1050
– Hardraade raids Haithabu.

1062
– Hardraada defeats Svend Estridsson at the Battle of Nissen, but fails to
gain control of Denmark.

1064
– Hardraada gives up Denmark and recognizes Svend Estridsson as legal heir
to the throne.

1066
– Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada, who dies in the Battle of Stamford
Bridge (Sep 25th).

1066
William, Duke of Normandy, invades England and defeats Saxon king Harold in
the Battle of Hastings (Oct 14th). End of Anglosaxon rule in England and start
of Norman lineage

1072
– Vikings conquers Palermo.

1080
Pope Gregory VII writes a letter to King Harold of Denmark forbidding witches
to be put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms, failure
of crops or pestilence.

1085
– Danish Vikings makes a final attempt to conquer England but fails.

1086
The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned
by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first
such undertaking since Roman times.

1096-1099
— First Crusade

Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date (1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot's Les Passages d'Outremer.

Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date
(1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot’s Les Passages
d’Outremer.

1100
AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.

1102
Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London

1141
Hugh of St. Victor wrote Didascalicon, which included a strong denunciation
of using or studying magic:


Magic was not accepted as part of philosophy, but stands with a false claim
outside it; the mistress of every form of iniquity and malice, lying about
the truth and truly infecting men’s minds, it seduces them from divine religion,
prompts them from the cult of demons, fosters corruption of morals, and impels
the minds of its devotees to every wicked and criminal indulgence. … sorcerers
were those who, with demonic incantations or amulets or any other execrable
types of remedies, by the cooperation of the devils or by evil instinct, perform
wicked things.

1145-1149
— Second Crusade

1147
— Wendish Crusade

1150
— University of Paris founded

1155-1190
— Frederick I Barbarossa

1158
— foundation of the Hanseatic League

1160–
Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood

1167
— University of Oxford founded

1185
— reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire

1189-1192
— Third Crusade

1193
The first known merchant guild.

1200.
Slavery virtually disappears in Japan; it was never widespread and mostly
involved captives taken in civil wars.

1200–1204
— Fourth Crusade

1205
— battle of Adrianople

1206
Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Orcs and the Orc Empire was
established. The Orcs would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political
borders.

1209
— University of Cambridge founded

1209-1229
— Albigensian Crusade

1215
The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first
times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.

1217–1221
— Fifth Crusade

1220-1250
— Frederick II

1222
— University of Padua founded

1223 Battle of the Kalka River

1225
In Germany, the secular law code “Sachsenspiegel” designated death
by fire as the proper punishment for witchcraft.

1228–1229
— Sixth Crusade

1231
Conrad of Marburg was appointed as the first Inquisitor of Germany, setting
a pattern of persecution. In his reign of terror, he claimed to have uncovered
many nests of “Devil worshippers” and adopted the motto of:


We would gladly burn a hundred if just one of them was guilty.

1233
Pope Gregory IX proclaimed Conrad of Marburg a champion of Christendom and
promoted his findings in the Papal Bull Vox in Rama.

1237–1242
Orc invasion of Rus’

1241-1242
— Orc invasion of Europe

1241
— Battle of Legnica

1248–1254
— Seventh Crusade

1252
Nevruy’s horde devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal.

1257
— foundation of the Collège de Sorbonne

1258
Pope Alexander IV instructs, “The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate
heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without
knowledge of manifest heresy involved.” “Manifest heresy” is
defined as: “praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to
consult demons, to elicit responses from them… or associate themselves publicly
with heretics.”

1258/1259
Orc attacks against Danylo of Halych, led by Burundai.

1261
— the Byzantine Empire reconquers Constantinople.

1273
Orc twice attacked Novgorod territory, devastating Vologda and Bezhitsa.

1274
Orcs devastated Smolensk.

1275
Orc invasion of south-eastern Rus’, Kursk pillaged.

1275
The first “witch” is burned to death after judicial sentence of
an inquisitor, in Toulouse, France. Her name was Hugues de Baniol and she
“confessed” to having given birth to a monster after intercourse
with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies’ flesh which she
procured in her nocturnal expeditions.

1278
Orcs pillaged the Ryazan Principality.

1280
First appearances of witchs riding brooms.

1280
— death of Albertus Magnus

1281
The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday sacked Murom and Pereslavl-Zalessky, ruined
vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev-Polsky, Tver and Torzhok.
1282 Orcs attacked Vladimir and Pereslavl-Zalessky.

1282:
Mechanization of papermaking (paper mill)

1282
– Llywellyn, the Last, one of the last remaining original Celts was executed
for treason by Edward Longshanks.

1283
Orcs sacked Vorgolsk, Rylsk, and Lipetsk, overrunning Kursk and Vorgol.
1285 The Orc warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom.

1291
— Acre, the last European outpost in the Middle East, is captured by
the Mamluks under Khalil.

1293
The Orc warlord Dyuden came to Rus and pillaged fourteen towns, including
Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Pereslavl-Zalessky,
Mozhaysk, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and Uglitch. During the same summer Takhtamir
looted the Tver principality and took slaves in the Vladimir principality.

1295
Marco Polo publishes his tales of China. A key step to the bridging of East
and West

1297
William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.

1299
— Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire.

1300-30
Beginning of the witch trials in Europe.

1307
Tatars pillaged the Ryazan principality.

1315
Tatars pillaged Torzhok in the Novgorod principality as well as Rostov

1317
Tatars devastated the Tver principality

1318
Tatars sacked Kostroma and Rostov

1315
Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that “France”
signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should
be freed

1320
Pope John XXII authorized the Inquisition to began persecuting sorcery and
witchcraft.

1321
— death of Dante Alighieri

1322
Tatars devastated Yaroslavl

1324
– 1325 Lady Alice Kyteler, her son and associates in Kilkenny, Ireland, were
tried for witchcraft. For the first time, stories of mating with demons were
linked with stories of pacts with Satan. Lady Alice escaped to England, but
others were burned.

1327
The Golden Horde organised a punitive expedition to the Tver principality

1334
Large-scale witch trial in Toulouse, France, in which 63 persons were accused.
Of these, eight were handed over to the state to be burned and the rest were
imprisoned.

1335
Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.

Collage of paintings representing battles of the Hundred Years’ War. Clockwise, from top left: La Rochelle, Agincourt, Patay, Orleans.

1337
to 1453 The Hundred Years’ War. England and France struggle for dominance
of Western Europe.

1337,
November
Battle
of Cadsand: initiates hostilities. The Flemish defenders of the island
were thrown into disorder by the first use of the English longbow on
Continental soil.
1340,
June 24
Battle
of Sluys: Edward III destroys the Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI
of France off the coast of Flanders ensuring England will not be invaded
and that the majority of the war will be fought in France.
1345,
October 21
Battle
of Auberoche: a longbow victory by Henry, Earl of Derby against a French
army at Auberoche in Gascony.
1346,
August 26
Battle
of Crécy: English longbowmen soundly defeat French cavalry near
the river Somme in Picardy. The dead included King John of Bohemia,
Duke of Lorraine, the Count of Flanders, the Count of Alençon,
the Count of Blois, the Viscount Rohan, the Lord of Laval, the Lord
of Chateaubriant, the Lord of Dinan, the Lord of Redon, 1,542 knights,
2,300 Genoese and 10,000 infantry.
1346,
September 4–1347, August 3
Siege
of Calais: Calais falls under English control.
1350,
August 29
Les
Espagnols sur Mer: English fleet defeats Castilian fleet in a close
fight.
1351,
March 26
Combat
of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir
call out and defeat thirty English and pro-English Breton knights under
Pembroke and Sir Robert Bramborough, Bramborough was killed.
1351French
army under De Nesle defeated by English under Bentley at Mauron in Brittany,
De Nesle killed.
1356,
September 19
Battle
of Poitiers: Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France,
France plunged into chaos. Casualties on the French side were 2,500
killed or wounded, 2,000 captured, John II, 17 lords, 13 counts, 5 viscounts
and over 100 knights.
1364,
September 29
Battle
of Auray: End of Breton War of Succession. Charles of Blois, Duke of
Brittany was killed; the Count of Auxerre and Bertrand Du Guesclin were
captured.
1367,
April 3
Battle
of Nájera: the Black Prince defeats a Castilian/French army at
Nájera in Castile.
1370,
December 3
Battle
of Pontvallain: Bertrand du Guesclin routs an English raiding army,
ending the English reputation for invincibility in open battle.
1372,
June 22
Battle
of La Rochelle: Castilian-French fleet defeats the English fleet, leading
to loss of dominance at sea and French piracy and coastal raids. John
of Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, was captured along with 400 knights and
8,000 soldiers.
1374-1380Castilian
fleet commanded by Fernando Sánchez de Tovar sacks and burns
English Channel ports, and Gravesend on the Thames.
1385Battle
of Aljubarrota: Nuno Álvares Pereira, commanding a small Portuguese-English
army, defeats the Castilian-French forces in Portugal.
1385Jean
de Vienne, having successfully strengthened the French naval situation,
lands an army in Scotland, but is forced to retreat.
1415,
October 25
Battle
of Agincourt: English longbowmen under Henry V defeat the French under
Charles d’Albret. Captured French nobles included Marshal of France
Jean Le Maingre, Charles, Duke of Orléans, John I, Duke of Bourbon
and Louis, Count of Vendôme. Killed on the French side were Antoine
of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Philip of Burgundy, Count
of Nevers and Rethel, Charles I d’Albret, Count of Dreux, the Constable
of France; John II, Count of Bethune, John I, Duke of Alençon,
Frederick of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont, Robert, Count of Marles and
Soissons, Edward III of Bar (the Duchy of Bar lost its independence
as a consequence of his death) and John VI, Count of Roucy, Jean I de
Croÿ and two of his sons, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny,
Jan I van Brederode, George Edward Stewart III, and the (Scottish) Lord
of Shetland. Other noble prisoners totalling about 1,500 were taken.
Overall, between 7,000 and 10,000 French were killed. On the English
side, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and Michael de la Pole, 3rd
Earl of Suffolk were killed, among at least 112 dead and an unknown
number of wounded.
1416English
defeat numerically greater French army at Valmont near Harfleur.
1417English
naval victory in the River Seine under Bedford.
1418,
July 31–1419, January 19
Siege
of Rouen: Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.
1419Battle
of La Rochelle: Franco-Castilian fleet defeats Anglo-Hanseatic fleet.
1421,
March 22
Battle
of Bauge: The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII, commanded by
the Earl of Buchan, defeat an outmanoeuvred English force commanded
by the Duke of Clarence. English nobles captured included John Beaufort,
3rd Earl of Somerset, Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, John Holland,
2nd Duke of Exeter and Lord Fitz Walter. Killed were Thomas of Lancaster,
1st Duke of Clarence, John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville, John de Ros,
8th Baron de Ros and Sir Gilbert de Umfraville.
1423,
July 31
Battle
of Cravant: The Franco-Scottish army is defeated at Cravant on the banks
of the river Yonne. On the French/Scottish side, 6,000 were killed and
2,000 captured, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Louis,
Count of Vendôme.
1424,
August 17
Battle
of Vernuil: The Franco-Scottish forces are decisively defeated, losing
4,000 dead, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Archibald
Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas
1426,
March 6
French
besieging army under Arthur de Richemont dispersed by a small force
under Sir Thomas Rempstone in “The Rout of St James” in Brittany.
1428,
October 12–1429, May 8
Siege
of Orléans: English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury,
the Earl of Suffolk, and Talbot (Earl of Shrewsbury) lay siege to Orleans,
and are forced to withdraw after a relief army accompanied by Joan of
Arc arrives at the city.
1429,
February 12
Battle
of the Herrings: English force under Sir John Fastolf defeats French
and Scottish armies.
1429,
July 17
Battle
of Patay: In a reverse of Agincourt/Crécy, a French army under
La Hire, Richemont, Joan of Arc, and other commanders break through
English archers under Lord Talbot and then pursue and mop up the other
sections of the English army, killing or capturing about half (2,200)
of their troops. John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Walter, Lord
Hungerford are captured.
1429Joan
of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred
Years’ War
1431Trial
of Joan of Arc took place and included allegations of witchcraft.
1435Battle
of Gerbevoy: La Hire defeats an English force under Arundel.
1435French
forces take Paris.
1450,
April 15
Battle
of Formigny: A French force under the Comte de Clermont defeats an English
force under Thomas Kyriell.
1451French
forces conquer Gascony.
1453,
July 17
Battle
of Castillon: Jean Bureau defeats Talbot to end the Hundred Years’ War.
This was also the first battle in European history where the use of
cannon was a major factor in determining the outcome. John Talbot, 1st
Earl of Shrewsbury was killed in battle.

1347 The
Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20%
– 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.

1347
The University of Prague is founded.

1358,
1365, 1373 Tatars sacked the Ryazan principality

1361
The fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued
to rule Orcia. The breakup of the Orc Empire, which marked the end of
Pax Orcica.

1374
Pope Gregory XI declares that all magic is done with the aid of Devils
and Demons and thus is open to prosecution
for heresy.

1375
Tatars attacked the southeastern suburb of Nizhniy Novgorod

1377
and 1378 Tatars attacked the Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan principalities

1380 – Dr Johann Georg Faust

1380 – Dmitri Donskoi defeated Tatars at Battle of Kulikovo

1381- Peasants’ Revolt in England.

1382 – Khan Tokhtamysh burns down Moscow, tens of thousands of its citizens died

1391
Tatars attacked Vyatka

1398
The theology faculty at the University of Paris declared that all forms of
magic or divination involved some sort of pact with the devil and were thus
heresy, justifying the persecution of every possible sort of witchcraft.

1399
Tatars attacked Nizhniy Novgorod

1400
Peter de Gruyères, a secular judge, carries out large-scale witch trials
in Bern, Switzerland.

1403:
The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish
Empire.

1408
Tatars sacked Serpukhov, as well as the vicinities of Moscow, Pereyaslavl,
Rostov, Yuriev, Dmitrov, Nizhni Novgorod and Galich

1410
Tatars ruined Vladimir

1410:
The Battle of Grunwald was the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic
War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights.

1415
Tatars devastated Elets

1420:
Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.

1425:
Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope Martin V.

1428
Witch trials of Brianqon took place in the Dauphine. About 167 local people
were burned as witches between 1428 and 1450.

1429
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich and Kostroma

1431
January 1– August 1503 Pope Alexander VI (Roderic Borgia)

1435-50
Number of witch trails rises sharply.

1439:
Printing press

1439
Tatar incursions into the vicinities of Moscow and Kolomna

1440
Notorious trial of Gilles de Rais, who was accused of witchcraft and debaucheries.

1441:
Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave
trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.

1443
Tatars looted the outskirts of Ryazan, but were repelled from the city proper

1445
Tatars attacked Nizhni Novgorod and Suzdal

1449,
1451, 1455, 1459 Tatars looted the outskirts of Moscow

1450s:
Machu Picchu constructed.

Present Day

1453:
The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI and the beginning of the Growth of the Ottoman Empire.

1455–1485: Wars of the Roses – English civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster.

1456
– 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula

1467–1615:
The Sengoku period is one of civil war in Japan.

1468
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich

1470
March 12 – Wars of the Roses – Battle of Lose-coat Field: The House
of York defeats the House of Lancaster.

October
– A rebellion orchestrated by King Edward’s former ally, the Earl of
Warwick, forces the King to flee England to seek support from his brother-in-law
Charles the Bold of Burgundy.

October
30 – Warwick releases Henry VI of England from the Tower and restores
him to the throne.

1472
Leonardo da Vinci is listed as a master in Florence’s “Company of Artists”.

1472
Tatars plundered Aleksin

1473
February 19– 24 May 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus

1475
September 13 – 12 March 1507 Cesare Borgia

1480
April 18 – 24 June 1519 Lucrezia Borgia

1480
The Great stand on the Ugra river marks the end of the Tatar-Orc yoke in
Russia


1481: Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé.

1484
Pope Innocent VIII publishes the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring
with the Greatest Ardor”) condemning witchcraft as the worst of all possible
heresies. The bull also officially grants Heinrich Krämer and James Sprenger,
Dominican inquisitors, the right to prosecute persons of any class or any
form of crime.

1485:
Henry VII defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes King of
England

1486
Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger publish Malleus maleficarum (“The
Hammer of Witches”), a learned but misogynistic book blaming witchcraft
chiefly on women. It was reprinted many times thanks to the newly-invented
printing press and was a major influence on the witch-hunt hysteria of the
next two centuries. It was regarded as the standard handbook on witchcraft
until well into the 18th century.

In
their opinion, witchcraft was based upon sexual lust:


All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which was in women insatiable.

In
an interesting twist, it was now declared that not believing in witches was
heresy:


A belief that there were such things as witches was so essential a part of
Catholic faith that obstinately to maintain the opposite opinion savours of
heresy.

1488
Papal Bull was issued, calling upon European nations to rescue the church
because it was “imperiled by the arts of Asmodeus.”

1490
King Charles VIII issued an edict against fortunetellers, enchanters, necromancers
and others engaging in any sort of witchcraft.

1492,
October 12 – Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.

1492:
Jews expelled from Spain.

1494
Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the
World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin. Italian
Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope’s
ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as
the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India
and Africa.

1500 Late Middle Ages

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria dell' Accademia, Venice (1485-90)
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria dell’ Accademia, Venice (1485-90)

The Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science. European civilization began to change beginning in 1500, leading to the scientific and industrial revolutions. That continent began to exert political and cultural dominance over human societies around the planet.

1428 – Trial of Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, for witchcraft.

1501
October 30 – The Banquet of Chestnuts is held by Cesare Borgia in the
Papal Palace of Rome.

1507
Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) The Mona
Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda).

1508
Mass witch trials in Biarn occurred.

1529
Inquisitorial witchcraft trials took place at Luxeuil.

1530s
Prosecutions for witchcraft begin in Mexico.

1532
The penal code Carolina decrees that sorcery throughout the German empire
should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it injured any person, the
penalties of torture and death for the witch was to be burned at the stake.

1542
Henry VIII issued a statute against witchcraft.

1547
Repeal of statute of 1542 during the reign of Edward VI.

1557
Toulouse witch trials took place, during which forty witches were condemned
and burned.

1558
England – Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne

La reine Élisabeth Ire d’Angleterre
dans sa robe de couronnement, à motifs de roses de Tudor et ourlée
d’hermine. Ses cheveux sont libres sur ses épaules, comme de tradition
pour le couronnement des reines, et peut être aussi comme symbole de
virginité. La peinture, d’un auteur inconnu, date de la première
décennie du XVIIe siècle. C’est une copie d’un original lui
aussi d’auteur inconnu, et perdu.

1563
Queen Elizabeth issued a statute against witchcraft.

Johan
Weyer wrote De Praestigiis Daemonum. This book described his belief that witches
were just mentally disturbed old women and that it was the belief in witches
which was caused by Asmodeus.
He was forced to leave the Netherlands and his book was denounced by Jean
Bodin.

1563
Council of Trent resolved to win back Germany from Protestantism to the Catholic
Church; intensification of religious struggles and persecutions results.

1566
The first Chelmsford witch trials. This trial was the first to appear in a
secular court in England and resulted in the first woman being hanged for
witchcraft, Agnes Waterhouse. This trial also produced the first chapbook,
or tabloid newspaper, relating to witchcraft.

1572
The Protestant ruler of Saxony imposes the penalty of burning for witchcraft
of every kind, including fortune-telling.

1579
The Windsor witch trials; also the second Chelmsford trials.

1580
Jean Bodin, a French judge, published Daemonomanie des Sorciers condemning
witches. According to Bodin, those denying the existence of witches were actually
witches themselves.

1580-1630
Period in which witch-hunts are most severe.

1582
St. Osyth Witches of Essex (case tried at Chelmsford).

1584
Miyamoto Musashi is born.

1589
England – Third Chelmsford witch trials.

1589
France- Fourteen convicted witches at Tours appealed to King Henry III, who
was in turn accused of protecting witches.

1590
William V began a witch hunt in Bavaria.

1590-91
Scotland – The North Berwick witch trials began when an alleged coven of witches
was exposed, resulting in Scotland’s most celebrated witch trials and executions.
King James VI (who became James I of England), a devout believer in witches,
even took part in the proceedings. The torture applied to the victims was
among the most brutal in Scotland’s entire history of witchcraft prosecution.

1592
Father Cornelius Loos wrote of those arrested and accused of witchcraft:


Wretched creatures were compelled by the severity of the torture to confess
things they have never done… and so by the cruel butchery innocent lives
were taken; and, by a new alchemy, gold and silver are coined from human blood.

1593
Warboys witches of Huntingdon were put on trial.

1597
Publication of Demonology by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England).

1604
England – James I released his statute against witchcraft, in which he wrote
that they were “loathe to confess without torture.”

1605:
Newspaper invented

1609
In response to a witch panic in the Basque region, La Suprema (the ruling
body of the Spanish Inquisition) issues an “Edict of Silence” forbidding
all discussion of witchcraft. For, as one inquisitor noted, “There were
neither witches nor bewitched until they were talked and written about.”

1612 England – Lancashire witch trials.

1614 August – The trial of Elizabeth Bathory, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls.

1618 Start of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) during which the witch hunt throughoutGermany was at its height.

1620
Case of the Bilson Boy (William Perry).

1625
Start of general decline of witch trials in France.

1631
Publication of Cautio Criminalis by Friedrich von Spee, opposing the witch
hunt.

1632 Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg marked the end of the persecutions in this principality (1609-1632).

1645 Case of the Faversham witches, Kent Witchfinder-general Matthew Hopkins and the Chelmsford (or Manningtree) witch trials.

1646 Death of Matthew Hopkins from tuberculosis.

1647 Publication of Discovery of Witches by Matthew Hopkins.

1647 First hanging for witchcraft in New England.

1649 Case of the St. Albans witches, Hertfordshire.

1652 “Dr. Lamb’s Darling”: the trial of Anne Bodenham and the trial of the Wapping Witch (Joan Peterson) near London.

1662 The Bury St. Edmunds witch trials.

Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.
Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul’s Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.

1666 Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September

1668-76 Outbreak of witch-hunts in Sweden.

1670 France- Rouen witch trials.

1674 Trial of Anne Foster in Northampton.

1679- 1682 The notorious Chanibre d’ardente affair: Louis XIV’s star chamber investigated poison plots and heared evidence of widespread corruption and witchcraft. More than 300 people were arrested and 36 executed. The affair ended with a royal edict which denied the reality of witchcraft and sorcery.

1688 Salem, Massachusetts. – The behavior of several children in the home of the Goodwin family in Boston results in the accusation, trial and execution of their Irish washerwoman, Ann Glover (also known as “Goody Glover”), for witchcraft.

1692 Between May and October, 19 people are tried and hanged as witches in Salem, Massachusetts.

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