13.1 billion years ago The first stars form
13.23 billion years ago Early galaxies form
800,000 B.C. – People lived in Mu (Lemuria).
315,000 Humans created The Golden Age of Mankind begins
223,000 – 100,000 BC Hominids, such as Neanderthals disposing of deceased individuals in simple graves with limestone blocks on them, as a form of grave marking.
200,000 BC: Glue
200,000 B.C. – People inhabited Atlantis.
17880 Chaos gives birth to Gaia
1750 Uranus rapes Gaia but he hated the children she bore him. The Titans, six sons and six daughters, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes He imprisoned Gaia’s youngest children in Tartarus, deep within Earth, which they caused pain to Gaia. She shaped a great flint-bladed sickle and asked her sons to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus, youngest of the Titans, was willing.
The Titans fight Uranus
and eventually he is defeated by Cronus.
Cronus cuts off Uranus‘ genitals with
a sickle and throws theminto the sea. From the blood which spilled from Uranus
onto the Earth came forth the Gigantes,
the three avenging Furies—the
Erinyes— and Meliae, the ash-nymphs and Aphrodite
emerges naked from the sea and travels to Cyprus.
110,000 The beginning of the last ice age during the last years of the Pleistocene
to approximately 18,000 years ago.
100,000 years ago: Domestication of dogs
98,000 BC Neanderthals deflesh their dead, after a period of excarnation prior to burial.
75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano supereruption.
60,000 Bow and arrow.
52,000 – 50,000 – Atlantean technology advances.
50,000 – Polar shift. Lemuria and Atlantis lose land to the sea.
50,000 B.C. – Atlantis becomes five islands.
50,000 B.C. until 10,000 B. C. Delphynes from Lemuria move to Central and South America.
40,000 years ago humans are given fire
36,000 BC: Cloth woven from flax fiber
35,000 BC: Flute
33,000 fey migrate from the Otherworld creating shared cultures between them and humans.
31,000 years ago: Cave paintings
30,000 BC Alulim was the first king of Eridu, and the first king of Sumer, making him the first recorded king in the world. Enki Avatar of Enlil, the god of Eridu brought civilization to Sumer at this point.
30,000-11,000 B.C. – First native peoples enter North America from Asia via Beringia.
28,000 BC Nacaals (Delphynes priests from Lemuria) move to India and Tibet.
28,000 B.C. to 18,000 B.C. – Atlantis loses land and becomes one island with a chain of islands connecting it to the North American continent. Atlanteans move to lands around the Atlantic Ocean. Lemuria looses a great deal of its land
28,000 B.C. – The Earth’s magnetic pole moves.
27,000 years ago. End of shared cultures located around central and south western France, between fey and humans.
25,000 – 21,000 BC Individual skulls and/or long bones begin to be stained with red ochre and are separately buried to produce sacred relics.Various objects are being included in the graves (i.e. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, “baton” antlers, flint blades, etc.).
22,000 years ago. No-humans believed to have become extinct in Europe.
20,000 B.C. – Large Atlantean settlement in the Bahama Bank area.
20,000 years ago. Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history proper began.
18,000 years ago. The last glacial period ends; rise of human civilization.
The Titans fight Uranus
and eventually he is defeated by Cronus.
Cronus cuts off Uranus‘ genitals with
a sickle and throws theminto the sea. From the blood which spilled from Uranus
onto the Earth came forth the Gigantes,
the three avenging Furies—the
Erinyes— and Meliae, the ash-nymphs and Aphrodite
emerges naked from the sea and travels to Cyprus.
The Golden Age of Mankind (17100BC-16740BC) The Golden Age is the
only age that falls within the rule of Titans,
The Golden Age, oil on copper painting by
Joachim Wtewael, 1605, Metropolitan Museum of Art Date (1605) Joachim Wtewael
17030 BC Cronus is warned not to take Rhea as his wife or have children with her, otherwise one of his children will dethrone him. He ignores this and Rhea gives birth to Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cronus swallows his children in order to avoid the prophesy but astone is substituted by Rhea in place of Zeus
who is taken by his mother into hiding in Crete.
1684 The Titanomachy
Fall of the Titans 1588 Oil
on canvas, 239 cm x 307 cm Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen
Titanomachy, (War of the Titans), was the ten-year series of battles between
the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans,
based on Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount
Olympus. This Titanomachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans, Battle
of Gods, or just The Titan War.
After the youngest Titan, Cronus, overthrew his own father, Uranus, with the help of his mother Gaia. Cronus then castrated his father, took his throne, and released his fellow Titan siblings, who had been locked away in Tartarus under Uranus’ tyrannical and selfish reign.
However, as Uranus was usurped, he made a prophecy that Cronus’ own children would rebel against his rule and castrate and depose him just as he and his siblings had done to him. For fear of his unborn children rising against him, Cronus now turned into the terrible king his father Uranus had been fearing their strenght he re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires
and Cyclopes in Tartarus.
After marrying from his wife (and sister) Rhea, he swallowed each of his children
whole as they were born – Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Being immortal, this did not kill them, but they remained trapped inside him. Rhea grieved for the loss of her children. So, when she was close to giving birth to Zeus,
she consulted with her parents Gaia and Uranus. They revealed the future to
her, showing her how to thwart Cronus. When Cronus came to Rhea for their
child, Rhea gave him instead a stone, wrapped in cloths. Not noticing, he
swallowed the stone instead. Rhea brought Zeus
to a cave on an abandoned island, where Zeus
Zeus grew up, he went to one of Cronus‘ parties disguised as a fellow Titan,
and gave Cronus some special potion, which caused Cronus to vomit up his swallowed
siblings. Zeus then led his brothers and sisters
in rebellion against the Titans.
the Olympians, led by Zeus, declared war against
the previous generation of deities, the Titans. The Titans who fought were
led by Cronus and included: Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Atlas, and Menoetius.
The Olympians (Zesus’s siblings) led by Zeus. Additionally, the Hecatonchires,
the Gigantes and Cyclopes,
who had been imprisoned by Cronus, assisted in the revolt. The Hecatonchires
helped the Olympians by hurling huge stones at the Titans. The Cyclopes
helped by crafting Zeus‘ famous weapon, the lightning
at last won victory after a full decade of war, the Olympian gods divided
the spoils between themselves, granting dominion of the heavens and sky to
Zeus, the sea to Poseidon, and the underworld
to Hades. The Olympians then shut the defeated Titans within Tartarus. However,
since during the war Oceanus and the Titanides (female Titans), Thia, Rhea,
Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Hecate, Metis and
Tethys, had remained neutral, they were not punished by Zeus.
Some other Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus
include: Atlas, Cronus, Epimetheus,
Menoetius, and Prometheus. Zeus gave Atlas a different punishment. The sky,
nearly collapsed onto the earth after the war because so much fighting had
occurred below. As a result, Zeus condemned Atlas to hold up the heavens and
sky for eternity. Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus switched sides and
aided Zeus in the war therefore they were not punished. Cronus manage to flee
after the war, thereby avoiding imprisonment in Tartarus. The Hecatonchires
remained to guard over the prisoners of Tartarus.
Inachus becomes king and judges that the land of the Peloponnese belongs to
The second age: The Silver Age of Mankind (1674-1628) – The Silver Age and
every age that follows fall within the rule of The Gods.
Stone Age: the feast. Detail 2 Date (1883)
Viktor Vasnetsov (1848–1926)
the silver age Zeus reduced the spring, and reconstructed the year into four
seasons, so that men for the first time sought the shelter of houses and had
to labor to supply their food.
first seeds of grain were placed in the ground since now man had to gather
their own food. A child grew up at his mother’s side a hundred years, but
adulthood lasted a short time.
the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human
affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved
together. These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more
freely than they did later.
Prometheus is chained to the rocks
after stealing the secret of fire from the Gods and giving it to man
Zeus has affair with Io the daughter of Inachus
and carries her off to Egypt where she marries Telegonus.
Herakles the Dactyl holds the first Olympic Games
Phoroneus son of Inachus, the first man, rules over the entire Peloponnese
from Phronocium later to become Argos
Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt.
Gigantomachy The Battle of the Gods and Giants errupts and Porphyrion is defeated.
The Gigantes rose up in arms against the Olympians in an attempt to end the Olympian reign. They tested the strength of the Olympian gods in what is known as the Gigantomachia or Gigantomachy.
Led on by Alcyoneus, Porphyrion and Enceladus the Gigantes hoped to reach the top of Mount Olympus by stacking the mountain ranges of Thessaly, Pelion and Ossa, on top of each other. With the aid of their powerful weapons the Olympians defeated the Gigantes and quelled the rebellion, confirming their reign over the earth, sea, and heaven, and confining the Gigantes to Tartarus.
16280 Epaphus is murdered. The Titans attempt to regain power but fail. Atlas is punished by being made to carry the heavens on his shoulders. Typhon is defeated and imprisoned under a volcano.
16,000 years ago. Pottery
15,000 B.C. – Descendants of people from Lemuria from India, Burma, Tibet to upper Egypt.
14,000 B.C. – Atlanteans settled in southern Egypt.
13,000 years ago. Beginning of the Holocene extinction generally from the impact of humans.
more than 90% of Mankinds history, Humans lived in small bands as nomadic
hunter-gatherers. As language became more complex, the ability to remember
and communicate information resulted in a new replicator: the meme. Ideas
could be exchanged quickly and passed down the generations.
years ago. earliest evidence of human warfare.
B.C. – The Bird-Serpent War.
B.C. – Disappearance of the land bridge between North America and Asia.
BC: the Natufians, groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers in the western fertile
crescent, developed a way of life that revolutionized the world; they lived
in permanent 100 person villages (such as Nahal Oren), built wooden huts with
stone foundations, harvested wild grains with flint sickles,
and used grinding stones to process their harvests. Their cities included
the city of Jericho. They lived in semi-subterranean, semi-circle houses.
years ago. Defeat of the Frost Giants
years ago. Holocene —Dire Wolf,
Smilodon, Giant Beaver, Ground Sloth, Giant Imperial Mammoth, Woolly Mammoth,
Mastodons, Giant Short-Faced Bear, American Cheetah, Scimitar Cats (Homotherium),
American Camels, American Horses, and American Lions all become extinct.
BC Earliest settlers arrive in Ireland, in the Mesolithic or Middle Stone
Age period. They cross by land bridge from Scotland. These people are mainly
hunters but they did not war as they were still worshipers of the Great Goddess.
Retreat of ice and warming of climate in Wales. Nomadic hunter gatherers in
Anglesey and Lleyn.
of the Paleolithic Period, All continents (except Antarctica) inhabited, Agriculture
and the domestication of animals begins.
BC. Atlantis was a naval power that conquered many parts of Western Europe
Nicholas Roerich (1874–1947)
9564 BC: Destruction of Atlantis the Atlantean priesthood flee to establish colonies in the British Isles, Western Europe, North Africa and South America. Rise of the Northern Mystery Tradition centered on the island Thule and the Aryan culture. Invention of the Runic Alphabet.
9500 BC; First temples.
9000 BC Earliest walled cities
9000 BC: settlements domesticate dogs and, instead of harvesting wild grains, domesticated barley, emmer, wheat, and vegetables.
8500- 7000 years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture. This spread to neighboring regions, and developed independently elsewhere, until most Humans lived sedentary lives in permanent settlements as farmers.
Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia. However, among those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative stability and increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand.
Agriculture had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before.
Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing
division of labor. This led to Earth’s first civilization at Sumer in
the Middle East
BC: Kiffian culture
BC: ancient Mesopotamians (“between the rivers”) developed the first
large populated permanent settlements (such as Jarmo and Jericho); they lived
in mud brick multi-room houses with mud ovens, used pottery, traded with other
villages in the fertile crescent, and domesticated goats, sheep, and pigs.
B.C. – Cataclysm in Bimini.
BC: the Hassuna cultures lived in organized villages with a social courtyard
containing a religious shrine, surrounded by mud brick houses, and around
the villages were five foot thick walls with community grain or water storage
towers; they introduced irrigation for farming, canals for trade, decorated
pottery, and lead or copper beads.
BC: Agriculture started in Ancient Egypt.
BC: the Halafian cultures were the first to specialize labor and have cobblestone
roads; they were the first to use the potter’s wheel and the Kiln to make
pottery with brilliantly colored realistic pictures and shapes.
B.C. – Beginning of agriculture in the Tehuacán Valley matorral.
BC: Tenerians culture, colonized the region in present Niger
BC: Syrian and Arabian nomads raided southern Mesopotamia, they were eventually
absorbed into the Ubadian population.
BC: the Ubaidian cultures made pottery decorated with wave patterns using
the potter’s wheel; they established many farming settlements including Eridu,
Uruk, Adab, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. They lived
in lower Mesopotamia.
Ubaidian settlements emerged as small village communities in the foothills
surrounding great river valleys; because they lived close to each other the
control over water streams, harvest, and domestication became easier to control
and caused increased food production.
food production increased it was able to supply larger communities and the
villages grew into cities, civilization first emerged; cities were the foundation
of civilization because with them came other civilizing elements including
religious cults, political systems, written language, and monumental architecture.
years ago. Domestication of the horse
BC In Brittain earliest-known Druidic camps or communities appear.
years ago. In Egypt, mummification around this time in Hierankopolis.
the Early Minoan period on Crete
BC: the Sumerians, a nomadic people from the Armenian Plateau northeast of
Mesopotamia, migrated into Mesopotamia and intermingled with the population;
they brought with them horse-drawn chariots and metallurgy used to make copper
helmets and spears.
the Sumerians the old cities developed into city-states, governed by a theocratic
assembly of priests and, because priests knew what the gods “wanted,”
they were very influential to the city-states; religion was also important
in architecture because the most important building in each city-state was
the ziggurat, the temple (or home) of the patron god of that city-state.
Sumerian city-states were in constant competition with each other, even if
by war; despite wars, the governments of the city-states generally maintained
friendly relations because, they as aristocrats, held a special bond as the
elite of a people who shared a common religion, language, and culture.
– 3000 BC First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon
Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as “corpse exposure”
was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be
consumed by animals and birds.
BC: a writing system was developed in order to keep administrative records;
it was called cuneiform and was made up of pictograms (pictures) describing
objects and ideograms describing ideas or actions.
invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and
libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission
of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity
and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and Wisdom.
years ago. The earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.
2958 Cessair she was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland.
To escape an oncoming Flood,they sail to Ireland however, when they attempt to land, ships are lost. The only survivors are Cessair a hundred and forty-nine other women, and three men.
The men are shared out evenly among the women. However, two soon die. Fintán is left with all the women but is unable to cope and so he flees. When the Flood comes, Fintán is the only one to survive. He becomes a salmon and later an eagle and a hawk, living for 5,500 years after the Flood, whence he becomes a man again and recounts Ireland’s history.
2800 Etana became the first Sumerian monarch and established the Kish dynasty;
he put northern Mesopotamia under his control, built the first monumental
building as his palace, and called himself king of the “four quarters
of the world”; Meskiaggasher established the Uruk dynasty and controlled
most of the south.
BC: the Kish dynasty established a powerful kingship and because it was situated
at a critical spot on the Euphrates river it controlled irrigation flow to
the southern city-states and thus kept the Uruk dynasty, in the south, under
BC: because the city-states were at constant war, they needed a strong military
leader to oversee war and large building projects; they began to replace theocracies
with hereditary monarchies and according to ancient tablets, “the kingship
came down from heaven.”
BC: Enmerkar succeeded his father Meskiaggasher as king of Uruk; he and his
general Lugalbanda (who also succeeded Enmerkar as king) conquered Aratta,
a city in northeastern Mesopotamia and marked the decreasing power of Kish
in the north; their deeds formed the basis of the Lugalbanda Epic.
BC: Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.
BC: Gilgamesh, grandson of Enmerkar, became king of Uruk; he constructed the
brick walls around Uruk and his deeds formed the basis of the Gilgamesh Epic;
Enmebaragesi became king of Kish, he ordered the construction of the Temple
of Enlil at Nippur, which became the spiritual center of Sumer, and he led
victorious campaigns against Elam.
2680 The second group of people to settle in Ireland, the Muintir Partholóin (people of Partholón) arrive. They are responsible for introducing such things as farming, cooking, brewing and buildings. After some years, they all die of plague in a single week.
Partholón was the son of Sera, a king of Greece, and fled his homeland after murdering his father and mother. He lost his left eye in the attack on his parents. He and his followers set off from Greece, sailed via Sicily, around Iberia, and arrived in Ireland from the west, having travelled for two and a half months.
They battle and defeat the Fomorian Titans, who are led by Cichol Gricenchos, at Magh Ithe, in the first battle fought in Ireland.
2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid
years ago. Mesanepada established the Ur dynasty; he defeated Agga, king of
Kish, which ended the Kish dynasty, and put the Uruk and Ur dynasties simultaneously
years ago. the Uruk dynasty became weak from constant attacks in the north
which only strengthened the power of the Ur dynasty in the south.
2650 The Muintir Partholóin all die from plague
years ago. The cultivation and weaving of silk starts to be a closely guarded
secret in China.
years ago. Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization
expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan,
much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region
of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of
its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban
planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus
script for its writing system.
years ago. Bactrian Camel and Dromedary are domesticated
years ago. Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza
BCE Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts
are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex
setup—including altar, portal, station stones, etc.—and shows consideration
of solar alignments.
2297 – A flood devastates China during the reign of Emperor Yao
years ago. Lugalannemudu of Adab, a city in the north, united northern Sumer
under his control; his power quickly passed to Mesilim, king of Kish; these
conquests by the northern city-states ended the Uruk dynasty and put the Ur
dynasty in complete power.
years ago. the construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge begins and continues
for the next five hundred years.
years ago. Eannatum established the Lagash dynasty; he united Sumer under
his control, called himself king of Kish, and conquered much neighboring territory.
years ago.Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, a group of legendary rulers
in Ancient China.
years ago. Urukagina of became king of Lagash; he enacted many social reforms
and during his reign Lugalzagesi, king of Umma, defeated him and took control
of Sumer, which went into a state of civil strife.
years ago. Sargon I, a Kish general, usurped and became king of Kish; he defeated
Lugalzagesi and took control of Sumer, built his capital at Akkad and established
the Akkadian dynasty, he centralized trade, made his daughter priestess of
Ur, repaired the irrigation systems, and created the first professional army
of 5400 men.
2350 Nemed is the leader of the third group of people to settle in Ireland, who are referred to as the Muintir Nemid, “people of Nemed”. They arrive thirty years after their predecessors, the Muintir Partholóin, had died out.
The Muintir Nemid set sail from the Caspian Sea.
Nemed won four battles against the Fomorian Titans. However, nine years after arriving in Ireland, Nemed dies of plague along with thousands of his people.
The remaining Muintir Nemid are then oppressed by the Fomorians Morc and Conand, who lived in Conand’s Glass Tower, on an island off the coast. Each Samhain, they must give two thirds of their children, their corn and their milk to the Fomorians. After many years, the Muintir Nemid rise up against the Fomorians and attack the Conand’s Tower with 60,000 warriors (30,000 on sea and 30,000 on land), defeating Conand. Morc then attacks, and almost all of the Nemedians are killed in a tidal wave. Only one ship escapes. The island would again be empty for another 200 years.
years ago. Manituu, son of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he defeated “32
cities in Iran,” the Elamites, and the many other city-states which tested
his military strength.
years ago. Akkad, capital of the Akkadian Empire, becomes the largest city
in the world, surpassing Memphis, capital of Egypt.
years ago. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he extended
the empire to “the four quarters of the world” and was the first
king to deify himself.
years ago. the Gutians, a group of nomadic peoples east of Mesopotamia, swept
through Mesopotamia, destroyed Akkad, and conquered Sumer; in the ancient
writings Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin angered the god Enlil, who made the Gutians
2190 – Shi Huang Ti, first ruler of unified China, begins construction of the Great Wall of China using prisoners of war as slave labor.
years ago. Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
years ago. Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe
years ago. Gudea became king of Lagash; despite Gutian rule of Sumer he took
control of southern Mesopotamia, encouraged literature, and initiated religious
constructions; after his death he was deified and many magnificent statues
were produced in his honor.
years ago. Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor
years ago. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I
years ago. Utuhegal became king of Uruk; he and his general, Ur-Nammu, defeated
the Gutians and drove them from Sumer; Utuhegal rewarded Ur-Nammu by making
him governor of Ur.
BC: Ur-Nammu established the 3rd Ur dynasty and declared himself king of Sumer
and Akkad; he defeated Utuhegal, king of Uruk, and Nammahani, king of Lagash,
united Sumer under his rule, constructed many temples, and established the
first code of laws which emphasized the king’s duty to protect the people
BC – The Ogygian Deluge occurs.
BC: Shulgi succeeded his father Ur-Nammu as king of Ur; during his reign their
was a drastic water shortage, he reorganized irrigation systems and encouraged
economic records on clay tablets.
BC Partholón arrives in Ireland
BC—Emperor Shen Nong makes first (perhaps mythical) tea drink by boiling
BC: the Elamites, a group of nomadic peoples in the north, invaded Sumer;
they destroyed Ur, captured Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur, ended the 3rd Ur Dynasty,
and sent Sumer into civil strife; regular imports of tin from Britain began
to go throughout Europe and the Middle East, making the use of bronze to make
tools and weapons possible.
BC Babylon’s Code of Hammurabi instructs, “If a man has laid a charge
of witchcraft and has not justified it, he upon whom the witchcraft is laid
shall go to the holy river; he shall plunge into the holy river and if the
holy river overcome him, he who accused him shall take to himself his house.”
2000 completion of Stonehenge.
BC – Glass appears.
Firbolg High Kings rule Ireland
BC. First Minoan palace built at Knossos c.
1900: the Amorites, a group of nomadic peoples from Syria encouraged by the
internal strife, invaded and conquered Sumer; they intermingled with the Sumerians
and obtained many high positions, including becoming kings of cities, the
most powerful being the Isin dynasty.
1897 Tuatha Dé Danann arrive in Ireland.
They came from four otherworld cities The
Cities of Danu Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias–where they acquired their magical skills and attributes. Arriving in ships on the coast of the Conmaicne Mara’s territory. They immediately burnt the ships “so that they should not think of retreating to them; and the smoke and the mist that came from the vessels filled the neighboring land and air. Therefore it was conceived that they had arrived in clouds of mist”.
Led by their king, Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuireadh on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland.
The Dagda was worshipped leader of the pantheon of gods and was commonly known as the
‘father of all’. Later the Tuatha Dé Danann were driven back to the otherworld by invaders
and thereafter inhabited their world of the hills and mountains.
Sumu-abum, an Amorite, conquered a small portion of land in middle Mesopotamia;
he built up the small village of Babylon and there ruled as king.
1897–1890 BC Bres Fomorian Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1890–1870 Nuada Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1870–1830 Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1823 BC: Rim-Sin, an Amorite, became king of Larsa; he conquered Isin, ending its reign of power, and united Sumer under the rule of the Larsa dynasty.
1792 BC: Hammurabi, an Amorite, became king of Babylon; he defeated Rim-Sin, conquered Mesopotamia, and established the Babylon Dynasty; he oversaw navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, construction, cleared block rivers, punished dishonest officials, reformed the calendar, and codified the Sumerian laws in the Code of Hammurabi with its primary idea, “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.”
1750 BC: Samsu-iluna succeeded his father Hammurabi as king of Babylon; he defeated the first invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites, a group of nomadic peoples from the east.
1731 BC Nemedians arrived in Ireland
1700 BC Palace at Knossos destroyed c. then rebuilt (14 royal tombs at Mycenae date between 1650-1550. Thera volcano erupts in 1628. Minoan palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquakes c.1600)
The third age: The First Brazen Age of Mankind (1628-1472)
Defeat of rebel angels, by Pieter Bruegel
Men of the Bronze Age were hard. War was their purpose and passion. Not only arms and tools, but their very homes were forged of bronze. The men of this age
were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits but dwell
in the “dank house of Hades”. It came to an end with the flood of
Zeus seduces Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus
(first of Zeus affairs with mortal women)
Car the son of Phoroneus founds the city of Megara
Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt
Argus the grandson of Phoroneus founds the city of Argos
(Achaean invaders reach region of Mycenae c.1600 BC)
1595 BC: the Hittites swept through Babylonia, took prisoners, and looted wealth; they brought with them the use of iron, which was used to make spears and battle axes; the Kassites proceeded the Hittites, conquered Babylonia, and established the Kassite dynasty.
1572 Criasus the son of Argus becomes king of Argos. Peiras his brother, founds the first temple of Hera in Argolis.
1570 BC: Agum, a Kassite, became king of Babylonia; he reconquered lost lands and extended his control over all Mesopotamia.
1527 Lelex is the first king in Lacedaemonia.
1517 Pelasgus rules over Arcadia.
1510 Polycaon son of Lelex rules in Messenia and Myles rules in Sparta.
1500 Emergence of Eastern Woodland culture in North America
1447-1407 BC Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High
King of Ireland
Lycaon provokes the Gods anger by murdering his son Nyctimus and serving him
up to the Gods.
Danaus flees from Aegyptus to Rhodes then takes Pelasgian Argos
BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving
tribute from the Danaioi)
Lycaon king of Arkadia, introduces Zeus cult
Cecrops king of Athens introduces Zeus cult
Danaus becomes king of Argos in the Peloponnese after Gelanor steps down
Hesiod’s fourth age: The Heroic or Second
Brazen Age (1460BC-1103BC)
– In this period men lived with noble demigods and heroes.
monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes.
To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition,
the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.
the Hellenic Wars
1450 BC—Minoan Second Palace period ends and Late Minoan culture starts.
conquer Minoans in Crete c.1450 BC. Earthquake destroys city of Knossos c.1450
BC. Palace is rebuilt and used until c.1380 BC)
Dardanus founds Troy after being given a share in the kingdom of Teucer king
II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440)
Zeus violates Europe, birth of Minos
BC—King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is
succeeded by his son Pandion I
Cadmus colonises Boeotia and founds Thebes.
Minos I becomes king of Crete
BC—Crete conquered by Mycenae start of the Mycenaean period.
Olympic Games held 50 years after the flood
BC The Dagda Tuatha Dé Danann High
King of Ireland
Dionysus is entertained by Amphyction king of Athens
Cinyras the son of Paphos the son of Pygmalion the son of Belus funds the
city of Paphos in Cyprus
is conquered by the Mycenaean’s and Minoan colony wiped out c.1400)
1400 —Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the
world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt.
Erichthonius now rules at Athens
Erichthonius rules at Troy
Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is
succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.
Dionysus known as Tauro Kranos restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers
Damascus and all of India.
III reigns in Egypt from 1386-1349 and refers to Greek cities such including
Amyclae in his records, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400,
Tudhaliya III rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.)
Dionysus drives Pentheus the king of Thebes to madness
Cadmus leaves Thebes and goes to Illyria
Tectemus the son of Dorus founds colony in Crete and fathers Asterius
Mycenaean wave of colonisation in Crete puts and end to Minoan palace civilisation
Minoan culture ends on Crete.
Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned.
Pandion becomes king of Athens
Athamas rules over Boeotia
Death of Erichthonius, King of Dardania.
Perseus son of Danae by Zeus
Apollo fathers Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas
Epopeus king of Sicyon at war with Thebes
Pandions daughter Philomela marries Tereus king of Thrace to form alliance
against Theban king Labdacus
Erechtheus becomes king of Athens
Phrixus while a boy is taken to Colchis by a Golden Lamb
1342-1320 The children of Perseus and Andromeda are born
(Fortress of Mycenae built between 1400 and 1200)
1341 Perseus accidentally kills his grandfather Acrisius at funeral Games of King Teutamides father
1337-1327 Delbáeth Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1336 Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Phthia and his brothers
1333 Bellerophon goes to king Proetus court to be purified
1329 Cecrops the eldest son of Erechtheus is chosen by Xuthus to become king of Athens
1327-1317 Fiacha Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland
1325 Amphion kills Lycus and becomes king of Thebes
1323 Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.
1320 Melampus the seer cures the madness of the Argive women and receives one third of Proetus kingdom and his brother Bias another third. First temple built to Dionysus.
1315-1264 Pelops the son of Tantalus king of Phrygia and Lydia flees Asia Minor and rules in Pisa and Olympia
(Mursilis II king of the Hittites dies in 1315 BC)
1314 Pelops sister Niobe marries Amphion king of Thebes
1314 Pelops holds Olympic Games
1314 The Argonauts Calais and Zetes are born to Oreithyia and Boreas
1314 Pelops marries Hippodamia
1310 Electryon becomes king of Mycenae
1309 BC—Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was later driven into exile
from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II’s brother (or possibly nephew) Metion,
so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married
the King’s daughter and eventually inherited the throne. After his death,
Pandion II’s sons returned to Athens and drove out the sons of Metion.
Pandion becomes king of Athens and is expelled by the sons of Metion
Oebalus becomes the second husband of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus
Laius caries off Chrysippus the son of Pelops and Astyoche
1299 Minos II the grandson of Minos becomes king of Crete after Asterius dies
1290 Procris leaves her husband and is seduced by Minos in Crete
BC Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine Tuatha Dé Danann High
Kings of Ireland
BC -80 AD Milesian High Kings of Ireland
Sthenelus takes throne of Mycenae after Amphitryon kills Electryon son of
November 4 1286 Heracles is born nine months later and named Palaemon
1285 Heracles strangles 2 serpents sent by Hera
1285 Asclepius is born to Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus
1284 Aegeus regains Athens from the sons of Metion
1283 Bias of Priene killed by his nephew Pylas
1282 BC—Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He reportedly only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion (son of Erechtheus of Athens) and his sons (including in some accounts Daedalus). His four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica.
monumental events of Heracles
are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also
ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and
the Trojan War.
Aeacus helps Poseidon build the walls of Troy for Laodamaon now king of Troy
Pelias imprisons Aeson and takes the throne after the birth of Jason
Theseus is born
Aegeus accidentally kills Minos son Androgeus at Games held in honour of Laius
king of Thebes and is forced to pay a tribute of 7 Athenian boys and girls
every 9 years
All of Greece plagued by earthquakes and famine due to Pelops murder of Stymphalus
or the Athenians murder of Androgeus and Aeacus is sent to pray for deliverance.
Atreus and Thyestes march against Laius the king of Thebes
Oedipus kills Laius the king of Thebes and marries his own mother Iocasta
Heracles lies with Thespius
50 daughters and kills the Lion of Cithaeron
Heracles marries Megara after
defeating the Minyans while Creon is king of Thebes in place of Laius
1258-1246 The Labours of Heracles take place while Eurystheus is king of Mycenae
1253 Herakles brings back Alcestis the wife of Admetus from death
1252 Theseus kills the Minotaur at the centre of the Labyrinth built by Daedelus
1251 The Caledonian Boar hunt
1247 The nine Muses who said to be the daughters of Peirus the Macedonian engage in a musical contest with Thamyris
1247 The marriage of Peleus to his second wife Thetis
1246 The birth of Achilles
1246 The 4 month long voyage of Jason and the Argonauts
1246 BC Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.
1246-1243 Heracles is sold as a slave to Omphale after killing Iphitus
1246 Eumolpus is victorious in the flute contest at Pelias funeral games
Orpheus tries to rescue Euridice from Hades
Heracles sacks Troy and puts
a young Priam on the throne (Troy
VII destroyed c.1250 BC)
Heracles settles old scores
in the Peloponnese
Heracles conquers Elis and
establishes Olympic Games. Polydeuces is champion Boxer.
Heracles places Nestor who
is still a boy on the throne of Messenia after killing his brothers and father
king Neleus of Pylos for helping the Elians
Heracles defeats the sons
of Hippocoon and restores the throne of Sparta to Tyndareus
Heracles leaves the Peloponnese
and marries Deianira
Hyllus is born
Medea flees from Corinth after
murdering Glauce the daughter of Creon
Heracles exiled to Thrachis
after killing one of Oeneus kinsmen
Nessus carries of Deianira and is killed by Heracles
with a poison arrow
The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus’s
affairs with mortals)
The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.
Heracles kills Cycnus the
son of Ares
Prophecy revealed from Oracle of Dodona that Heracles
would die in 15 months after carrying off Iole
12 1226 Heracles dies and
becomes a god
The seven make war against Thebes
BC: Tukulti-Ninurta I, king of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, captured Babylon
and extended his rule through northern Mesopotamia; although the Kassite dynasty
continued to rule, it was only nominal.
BC: Shutruk-Nahhunte I, king of Elam, captured Babylon; he ended the Kassite
dynasty and placed his son Shilhak-Inshushinak on the throne; he encouraged
sculpture and literature.
Theseus captures Thebes and
buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.
Eurystheus defeated by Theseus
and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles
Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, by Piero di Cosimo (notice
the female centaur with a male centaur in the foreground).
battle with the Centaurs at the wedding
feast of Pirithous, the Centauromachy. The centaurs had been invited, but,
unused to wine, their wild nature came to the fore. When the bride was presented
to greet the guests, the centaur Eurytion leapt up and attempted to rape her.
All the other centaurs were up in a moment. In the battle that ensued, Theseus
came to the Lapiths’ aid. In the battle the Lapith Caeneus was killed, and
the defeated Centaurs were expelled from
Thessaly to the northwest.
5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae
Castor, Polydeuces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding
After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes
takes the throne of Mycenae
Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Thyestes.
The Epigoni attack Thebes
Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90
The Beauty contest. Menelaus marries Helen.
The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.
Theseus, legendary King of
deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson
of Erichthonius II of Athens
and second cousin of Theseus’ father Aegeus. Menestheus is reportedly assisted
by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen
from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King
Lycomedes is an old friend and ally. Lycomedes, however, considers his visitor
a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.
Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting
in single combat against Echemus
First Gathering at Aulis
B.C. – Emergence of the Olmec culture.
Second Gathering at Aulis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia.
BC—April 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy.
Georg Trautmann (1713–1769): Blick auf das brennende Troja Oil
on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. From the collections of the granddukes of Baden,
war sprang from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena,
Hera and Aphrodite,
after the goddess Eris (“Discord”)
gave them a golden apple with the inscription “to the fairest” (
known as the apple of Discord) at the wedding feast of Peleus
and Thetis. The goddesses went
to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite,
as the “fairest”, should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite
made Helen, the
most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris,
who took her to Troy.
Agamemnon, king of Mycenae,
and the brother of Menelaus,
led an expedition of Hellenic troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten
years. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Greeks Achilles
and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector
and Paris, the city fell
to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks mercilessly slaughtered the Trojans
and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods’ wrath. Few returned to
their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.
12 1183 The return and murder of Agamemnon
1183 BC – * Iron Age – During this age humans live an existence of
toil and miseryand the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: “there
will be no help against evil.”
massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC)
Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus
Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus
Odysseus held captive by Calypso
The suitors vie for Penelope
Menelaus flees Egypt
III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC. Among those named are the Peleset,
Tjeker and Denyen, ie. the Pelasgians, Teukrians and Danaians who are said
to be based in Cyprus)
The vengeance of Orestes against
Clytemnestra and Aegistheus
BC—Menestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War,
dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a
son of Theseus.
Orestes kills Aletes son of
Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends
his search for Iphigenia
1160 Odysseus is accidentally killed by his son Telegonus
1158 Orestes is told by the Delphic Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arkadia and is killed by a snake bite while founding new cities.
1154 BC—Death of King Menelaus of Sparta
1154 BC—Suicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes.
1153 Autesion expelled from Thebes after he defects to the Heraklids.
1153 The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on.
(Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC)
1153 The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes
1150 Demophon dies in Cyprus
1147 BC—Demophon King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes.
1135 BC—Oxyntes King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas.
1134 BC—Apheidas King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year.
1130 The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.
1130 Penthilus the son of Orestes
Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus
who becomes king of Athens.
BC: Nebuchadnezzar I became king of Isin; he defeated Shutruk-Nahhunte and
united Babylonia under his rule.
Tisamenus the son of Orestes
rules over Mycenae
BC: Tiglath-pileser I became king of Assyria; he defeated Nebuchadnezzar and
reclaimed control of Babylonia, assuming it into the Assyrian Empire.
The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus
Brutus, grandson of Aeneas,
leads a group of Trojan exiles to Britain. High Kingship of Brutus, followed
by Locrinus, Gwendolen, Maddan, Mempricius, Ebraucus and Brutus Greenshield.
The Heraklids defeat Tsiamneus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese.
of invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1100 BC. Attack on Asia
Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC.)
BC—Greek Dark Ages begin.
BC—Melanthus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 37 years and is succeeded
by his son Codrus.
BC — Codrus, King of Athens, dies in battle against Dorian invaders after
a reign of 21 years. Athenian tradition considers him the last King to have
held absolute power. Modern historians consider him the last King whose life
account is part of Greek mythology. He is succeeded by his son Medon.
BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece
BC—World population: 50,000,000
– 900 BC Earliest hill-top earthworks (“hillforts”) begin to appear,
also fortified farmsteads; increasing sophistication of arts and crafts, particularly
in decorative personal and animal ornamentation.
BC: groups of nomadic peoples, mostly the Aramaeans and Chaldeans, began raiding
Babylonia continuously; the Assyrians conquered began to conquer these groups
one by one.
BC Bath founded
– circa 760 BC Dido
BC rise of Etruscan civilization
Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games.
BC : Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus : Rome as a kingdom
BC : reign of Romulus
or 722 BC: Sennacherib became king of Assyria; he captured and destroyed Babylon,
tortured and beheaded prisoners, and enslaved women and children.
BC – Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule
as Emperor of Japan.
660 BC – Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland
626 BC: Naabopolassar, a Chaldean, proclaimed himself king of Babylonia and
established the Chaldean dynasty; he conquered the Assyrians with the help
of his allies, the Medes, the Scythians, and the Cimmerians.
BC – 560 BC Aesop, Greek Poet
BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus becomes king of Rome.
BC: Nebuchadnezzar II succeeded his father Naabopolassar as king of Babylonia;
he conquered all of Mesopotamia, defeated Egyptian invasions, destroyed Jerusalem (586 BC), and rebuilt the city of Babylon as his capital (including the hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the seven ancient wonders).
605 BC – King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.
600 BC: Foundation of Marseille by Phoceans
600 BC: India—Age of the Mahajanapadas—16 great kingdoms rule India—Kasi,
Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru,
Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja
594 BC: Solon appointed archon of Athens; institutes democratic reforms
556 BC: Nabonidus, one of Nebuchadnezzar II’s governors, became king of Babylonia; he angered the priestly class of Babylon and sent the empire into a state of civil wars.
550 BC: Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica
539 BC: Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, conquered Babylonia; he added Babylonia
into the Persian Empire and ended the Chaldean Dynasty.
534/509 BC: reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king
509 BC Founding of Roman Republic, expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy
506 BC: Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the
forces of Chu.
500 B.C. – Emergence of Maya civilization and Adena culture.
500 – 450 BC Odin is recognized as major god of Northern Mysteries replacing the
500- La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts, 15 BCE time of mythology)
499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack
on the rebellious island of Naxos.
499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia.
499 BC: Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.
495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.
492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the
leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign
that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.
490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades.
486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.
486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule.
480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 (popular culture mistakes it for being 300 Spartans but it was also 3000 other Greeks) so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians
450 BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.
431 BC Peloponnesian War
430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.
400 BC- Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece
400 BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.
BC: Socrates is executed in Athens on charges of impiety and corrupting Athenian
BC – Belinus and Brennus, kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army
and sack Rome
BC: Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome.
BC Corinthian War
BC Roman commanders are forbidden to settle warfare by single combat with
Great succeeds father, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis
BC Celts encounter Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, on the Danube.
They exchange pledges of alliance. Large numbers of Celtic warriors join the
Greeks in a war against the Etruscans.
BC – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins
of Troy before his siege of Persia.
Great defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes
Great conquers Egypt
at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander
the Great ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire
the Great conquers the Persian Empire, decline and depopulation of Ancient
Greece with large migrations towards the conquered lands.
Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and
necessity, nothing comes out of nothing
Great conquers Samarkand
Great invades Northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to
march further eastwards.
BC : Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls
BC: Seleucus I Nicator establishes himself in Babylon, founding the Seleucid
BC Further Celtic hostilities against Rome; massacre on the River Tiber. High
Kingship in Britain of Beldgabred.
BC Celts invade Greece through Macedonia, temple of Delphi plundered.
264 BC First Punic War
BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard
plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul
and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.
BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus
in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.
BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the
State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.
BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes
emperor of the Seleucid empire.
BC: Construction of the Colossus of
Rhodes is completed
BCE Celts invaded Greece
BC: End of history of Babylon.
BCE Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).
264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the
BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor
of the Seleucid empire.
BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in
China; a decisive Qin victory.
BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations,
and annexes Sicily and Corsica.
227 BC: The assassination against Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke
from Yan failed.
BC: 225 BC Battle of Telemon; Celts advance on Rome again. Roman army routs
invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy, all Celtic tribes south
of River Po destroyed. From the major Celtic loss at the Battle of Telamon,
Celtic lands come under pressure from the Germanic tribes to the north, and
the spread of Rome. Gallia Cisalpina and southern Gaul are conquered; the
Iberian Peninsula falls by degrees. High Kingship in Britain of Redon.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.
BC: With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of
China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin
218 BC: Second Punic War begins. Hannibal with Celtic mercenaries makes his
famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy , the Roman heartland.
BC: Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae.
BC: Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great
Wall of China.
BC Hannibal defeated at Zama by Scipio; extensive Romanization of Celtic tribes
BCE The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands,
Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.
BC: Battle of Pydna—The Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans.
BC Third Punic War
BC: Rome conquers Macedonia.
BC: Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
146 BC Battle of Corinth
BC High Kingship in Britain of Beli Mawr the Great, who married Don, daughter
of Math. They have one daughter, Penarddun who will later marry Llyr. Other
children are Amathaon, Nudd, Govannon, Aranrhod, Gilvaethwy and Gwydion. Beli
Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of
Dyfed. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of
Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who
is claimed as the founder of Gwent.
BC: Roman consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, which remove all
ownership restrictions for joining the Roman Army.
BC Glass blowing is invented in Roman Syria, Sunspots, first recorded by Chinese,
BCE Rome defeats Celts in Italy.
BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the
Third Servile War.
BC – Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to
BC– Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates
BCE Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.
BCE Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.
31 BC Battle of Actium
BC January 10, 49 BC: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, precipitating
war with Rome.
BC– Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March
BC: Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium—Off the western coast of Greece,
forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
BC: The Roman Senate votes Octavian the title of Augustus. Augustus eventually
assumes all authority formerly held by the Roman senate becoming the first
emperor. The Roman state is henceforth known as the Roman Empire, and the
period from 27 BC to AD 305 as the Principate.
BC The death of Cúchulainn
marked the end of the Red Branch Knights dominance. As a boy he killed a fierce
hound belonging to a man called Culann. The hound was said to be as big as
a horse and it took three chains and three men on each chain to hold him.
– Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire
Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany
Death of Pan
Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor
Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir
Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy
Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor
Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor
Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain
CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.
Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes
60– The Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the
power of the Celtic druids, attacked Anglesey, destroying the shrine and the
sacred groves. News of Boudica’s revolt reached him just after his victory,
causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest. Remaining
druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland
Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.
Great Fire of Rome
Karl Briullov (1799–1852) The Last Day
80-448 Goidelic High Kings
End of 1st century – codex replaces the scroll.
– Cai Lun of China invents paper
construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins
Zhang Heng of China invents the world’s first water-powered armillary sphere
Zhang Heng of China invents first seismometer to detect the cardinal direction
– Ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye. He also
compiles three of the most influential books in western history:
Almagest which becomes the basis for western and Middle Eastern astronomy
until the time of Copernicus and Kepler; The astrological treatise, Tetrabiblos;
and the Geographia
– Inventions, discoveries, introductions
A primitive form of eyeglasses were developed for a nearsighted princess in
South Pointing Chariot invented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that
acts as a directional compass
early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling, known as the Kongming
lantern was said to be invented by Zhuge Liang.
repeating crossbow or semi-automatic crossbow is an improved version of a
model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is
debate whether the original Warring States Period bow was semi-automatic,
or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge’s version could
shoot farther and faster.
sources report that Zhuge Liang invented a primitive land mine type device.
mysterious but efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for
grain) referred to as the “wooden ox and flowing horse” also invented
by Zhuge, which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow.
the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs.
Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men.
The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in
The Jin Dynasty reunites China under one empire after the conquest of Eastern
Under the Roman Empire, punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State
against witches who brought about another person’s death through their enchantments.
Conversion of Emperor Constantine.
The Council of Ancyra imposes five years of penance upon those who consult
magicians. Here, the offence lies in participation in paganism.
AC The Fenian Cycle these tales revolve around the Fianna, a group of warriors
famous for their bravery and skill in battle. They operated in groups of six
warriors and were only accepted to the clan after they had undergone strenuous
tests to determine their abilities. Finn MacCunaill is the central character
during this cycle. One of the most famous tales from this period is about
how he acquired his great knowledge. A druid who was one of Finn’s teachers
caught a fish in the River Boyne that was notable because whoever ate this
salmon would know everything that happened in Ireland. After the druid caught
the fish, Finn prepared it for him but he burned himself while cooking the
fish. Finn licked his wound and immediately gained Wisdom and second sight.
With this power, he supposedly foretold the coming of the Danes.
Huns invade Eastern Europe
– Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans fey worship
Priscillian of Avila was executed by burning for witchcraft.
Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, causing the Roman Empire to split permanently.
395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location
390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants
of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of
Britain and takes the throne for himself.
Visigoths, Suevi and Burgundians cross the Rhine and invade Roman Gaul. Beginning
of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
410 — Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome
451 Attila the Hun is repelled from Gaul by Roman–Barbarian forces at the Battle of Châlons.
455 The Vandals pillage Rome.
476 The last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, is deposed by Odovacar, conventionally ending the Western Roman Empire.
500 – Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland). Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany.
515 Battle of Mons Badonicus. The West Saxon advance is halted by King Arthur.
522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation
Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal
writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.
The Grail is found by Sir Galahad
Battle of Camlann, final battle of King
The realm of Camelot disappears with Arthur to Avalon (Fey Wild) and continues
once he has healed.
First pandemic of Bubonic
Plague (Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople
and the rest of Byzantine Empire.
world’s population shrinks to about 208 million people.
AD Beowulf, king of the Geats slays
Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.
AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern
The first Chinese Paper money is issued.
Greek fire invented in Constantinople.
AD – Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan
– 804: Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling
the Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion,
incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire.
The Council of Paderborn rules that sorcerers are to be reduced to serfdom
and made over to the service of the Church.
The first written account of a Viking raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne
in northern England.
– Vikings attacks the monastery at Yarrow, but fails.
Vikings run assaults on monasteries in Scotland and approach the Irish sea
and attacks on Ireland starts.
– Vikings attacks Lambay, Ireland.
– Vikings attacks on France begin.
St. Philibert Monastery (France) sacked
Norwegians settle Faroe Islands
Gunpowder in Ancient China: Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic
consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for
an elixir of immortality.
– Skiringsal and Birka trade centers are founded.
– Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas on the isle Iona of
– Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas for the second time.
Danes under King Godfred attack Frisia
– Vikings conquers the Isle of Man and establishes permanently.
– Vikings attacks Flanders and approches the moth of river Seine.
– Vikings approaches the river Thames, England.
Danes attack Dorestad, now in the Netherlands
Norwegians over winter in Ireland
– Turgeis (Torgisl) and a big Viking fleet conquers Ireland and settles permanently.
– Vikings under the leadership of Turgeis founds Dublin, Ireland.
841 – Vikings burns Lillebonne, Caudebec and Rouen and destroys the abbeys of
Jumieges and St Wandrille.
843 – Vikings of Vestfold establishes a power base at the isle Noirmountier (Loire)
and raids Nates.
844 – A Viking raid on Seville is repulsed.
844 – Turgeis is killed by the Irish, drowned in Loch Nair.
845 – Viking chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok attacks Paris along a big fleet.
850: Longphorts established in Ireland
850: Danes spend first winter in England
852: Danes spend first winter in Frankia
853 – Olaf the White conquers Ireland along a big Viking fleet.
853: Norwegian Olaf the White established as king at Dublin
857 – Vikings raids Paris again.
858 – Vikings captures the abbot of St Denis and claims ransome.
859 – Vikings raids in the Mediterranean for the first time.
860 – Rus (Sweds) Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).
The third big attack on Paris by Vikings.
– Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.
– Xanten demolished by Vikings.
Danish Great Army arrives in East Anglia
Norwegian Harald Finehair subjugates Scottish Isles
– Danish Vikings establishes the kingdom of York, England.
– Harold Luva (Fairhair) starts his effort to gain full control in Norway.
Danes rule over one half of England
– Olaf the White returns to Norway, his brother Ivarr becoms ruler of Ireland.
Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, Viking advance is halted in England.
Later he becomes the first king of a united England and formed new laws and
fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.
Ingolf Arnason founds Reykjavik, Iceland
– Ivarr the Boneless dies, his sons continues attacks on north-eastern England.
– Rurik establishes Kiev as power center of the Kievan Rus’ domains.
Norwegian Sigurd the Mighty moves into the Scottish mainland
– A huge fleet of Viking ships attacks Paris, but fails in conquering the
– Harald (Luva) Fairhair finally unites Norway as one kingdom, first in Scandinavia.
– Alfred and the Danes splits England under the Danelaw pact.
– The Vikings at Noirmountier (France) is finally beaten.
– Turf-Einar, son of Rognwald and half brother of Rollo, becomes earl of Orkney.
– Vikings raids in the Mediterranean again.
– The Irish regain Dublin from the Vikings, and rule for fifteen years.
Canon Eposcopi, a collection of church laws, appeared. It declared that belief
in witchcraft was heretical.
– The Viking chieftain Rollo is granted land by the Frankish king and founds
the Duchy of Normandy.
– Vikings defeats Dublin by military power and regains the throne.
– Kings Æthelstan and Harald Fairhair joins in a treaty to gain control
of the Norse Vikings.
– The first democracy (Alltinget) of the world is founded at Thingvellir,
Iceland, by Vikings.
– Harald Fairhair dies and his son Eirik Blood-axe struggle to gain full control
of Norway, but fails.
– Rus Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).
– Eirik Blood-axe, son of Fairhair, gains control of York.
– Olaf Crovan defeats Eirik Blood-axe, who flees.
– Eirik Blood-axe regains control of York.
– Eirik Blood-axe killed at the Battle of Stainmore in York, Vikings defeated
by King Edmund.
– King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.
– Emperor Otto II of Germany attacks Denmark, but fails because of Norwegian
– Maccus Haraldsson, first known king of Man, dies, his brother Gudrød
– Angelsey (coast of Wales) is included to the Norse kingdom of Man.
– Vikings starts regular attacks to gain control of England.
– Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland and starts settling.
– The Jomsvikings attacks Norway, lead by Earl Sigvalde, but is firmly defeated
Norse farmers led by Erik the Red build a series of small settlements along
Greenland and western North America
– Viking ships sails in Newfoundland waters.
– Viking chieftain Olaf Tryggvasson, along 93 ships, defeats Byrhtnoth at
– Æthelred II pays, the first Danegeld ransom, off £ 10,000 in
silver to stop Viking attck on London.
– Æthelred II pays off £16,000 in silver to stop Viking attcks
– Olaf Tryggvasson conquers Norway and proclaims a Christian kingdom.
– Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland by powers of Olaf Tryggvasson.
High Middle Ages
– Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.
– Olaf Tryggvasson dies in the Battle of Svolder (coast of Vendland); Norway
ruled by Danes.
AD – By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.
– Brian Boru defeats the Norse Vikings and becomes king of all Ireland.
– Viking chieftain Olaf Haraldsson (St. Olav) attacks London by river and
destroys London Bridge.
– Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North
– Danes, helped by Olaf Haraldson, conquers England; Æthelred flees
– The Vikings of Ireland are finally defeated in the Battle of Clontarf, but
Brian Boru is killed.
– Vikings abandons the Vinland settlements at the coast of North America.
– Olaf Haraldsson regains Norway from the Danes.
– Danes, under Canute the Great, gains full control over England. Cnut named
king of England, Denmark and Norway
– The coronation of Canute the Great, as King of England.
Seemingly pious and ascetic mystics were burned as witches in Orleans. They
were in fact Devil worshippers who indulged in sex orgies and the murder of
– Kings Anund Jakob (Sweden) and Olaf Haraldsson (Norway) attacks Denmark,
– Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway and Olaf flees.
– Olaf Haraldsson returns to regain Norway, but is killed at Stiklestad.
– Canute the Great dies, Magnus, son of St Olaf, expels the Danes from Norway
and regains the kingdom.
– Edward the Confessor rules England, supported by Danes.
– Magnus, king of Norway, becomes king of Denmark.
– Magnus grants Harald Hardraada half of Norway, as a co-king.
– Magnus, king of Norway & Denmark, dies; Hardraada sovereign king of
Norway; Claims Denmark as well.
– Svend Estridsson gains control of the Danish throne, but Hardraada won’t
give up his claim.
– Hardraada founds Oslo, Norway.
– Hardraade raids Haithabu.
– Hardraada defeats Svend Estridsson at the Battle of Nissen, but fails to
gain control of Denmark.
– Hardraada gives up Denmark and recognizes Svend Estridsson as legal heir
to the throne.
– Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada, who dies in the Battle of Stamford
Bridge (Sep 25th).
William, Duke of Normandy, invades England and defeats Saxon king Harold in
the Battle of Hastings (Oct 14th). End of Anglosaxon rule in England and start
of Norman lineage
– Vikings conquers Palermo.
Pope Gregory VII writes a letter to King Harold of Denmark forbidding witches
to be put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms, failure
of crops or pestilence.
– Danish Vikings makes a final attempt to conquer England but fails.
The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned
by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first
such undertaking since Roman times.
— First Crusade
Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date
(1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot’s Les Passages
AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.
Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London
Hugh of St. Victor wrote Didascalicon, which included a strong denunciation
of using or studying magic:
Magic was not accepted as part of philosophy, but stands with a false claim
outside it; the mistress of every form of iniquity and malice, lying about
the truth and truly infecting men’s minds, it seduces them from divine religion,
prompts them from the cult of demons, fosters corruption of morals, and impels
the minds of its devotees to every wicked and criminal indulgence. … sorcerers
were those who, with demonic incantations or amulets or any other execrable
types of remedies, by the cooperation of the devils or by evil instinct, perform
— Second Crusade
— Wendish Crusade
— University of Paris founded
— Frederick I Barbarossa
— foundation of the Hanseatic League
Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood
— University of Oxford founded
— reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire
— Third Crusade
The first known merchant guild.
Slavery virtually disappears in Japan; it was never widespread and mostly
involved captives taken in civil wars.
— Fourth Crusade
— battle of Adrianople
Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Orcs and the Orc Empire was
established. The Orcs would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political
— University of Cambridge founded
— Albigensian Crusade
The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first
times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.
— Fifth Crusade
— Frederick II
— University of Padua founded
1223 Battle of the Kalka River
In Germany, the secular law code “Sachsenspiegel” designated death
by fire as the proper punishment for witchcraft.
— Sixth Crusade
Conrad of Marburg was appointed as the first Inquisitor of Germany, setting
a pattern of persecution. In his reign of terror, he claimed to have uncovered
many nests of “Devil worshippers” and adopted the motto of:
We would gladly burn a hundred if just one of them was guilty.
Pope Gregory IX proclaimed Conrad of Marburg a champion of Christendom and
promoted his findings in the Papal Bull Vox in Rama.
Orc invasion of Rus’
— Orc invasion of Europe
— Battle of Legnica
— Seventh Crusade
Nevruy’s horde devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal.
— foundation of the Collège de Sorbonne
Pope Alexander IV instructs, “The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate
heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without
knowledge of manifest heresy involved.” “Manifest heresy” is
defined as: “praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to
consult demons, to elicit responses from them… or associate themselves publicly
Orc attacks against Danylo of Halych, led by Burundai.
— the Byzantine Empire reconquers Constantinople.
Orc twice attacked Novgorod territory, devastating Vologda and Bezhitsa.
Orcs devastated Smolensk.
Orc invasion of south-eastern Rus’, Kursk pillaged.
The first “witch” is burned to death after judicial sentence of
an inquisitor, in Toulouse, France. Her name was Hugues de Baniol and she
“confessed” to having given birth to a monster after intercourse
with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies’ flesh which she
procured in her nocturnal expeditions.
Orcs pillaged the Ryazan Principality.
First appearances of witchs riding brooms.
— death of Albertus Magnus
The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday sacked Murom and Pereslavl-Zalessky, ruined
vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev-Polsky, Tver and Torzhok.
1282 Orcs attacked Vladimir and Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Mechanization of papermaking (paper mill)
– Llywellyn, the Last, one of the last remaining original Celts was executed
for treason by Edward Longshanks.
Orcs sacked Vorgolsk, Rylsk, and Lipetsk, overrunning Kursk and Vorgol.
1285 The Orc warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom.
— Acre, the last European outpost in the Middle East, is captured by
the Mamluks under Khalil.
The Orc warlord Dyuden came to Rus and pillaged fourteen towns, including
Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Pereslavl-Zalessky,
Mozhaysk, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and Uglitch. During the same summer Takhtamir
looted the Tver principality and took slaves in the Vladimir principality.
Marco Polo publishes his tales of China. A key step to the bridging of East
William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.
— Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire.
Beginning of the witch trials in Europe.
Tatars pillaged the Ryazan principality.
Tatars pillaged Torzhok in the Novgorod principality as well as Rostov
Tatars devastated the Tver principality
Tatars sacked Kostroma and Rostov
Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that “France”
signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should
Pope John XXII authorized the Inquisition to began persecuting sorcery and
— death of Dante Alighieri
Tatars devastated Yaroslavl
– 1325 Lady Alice Kyteler, her son and associates in Kilkenny, Ireland, were
tried for witchcraft. For the first time, stories of mating with demons were
linked with stories of pacts with Satan. Lady Alice escaped to England, but
others were burned.
The Golden Horde organised a punitive expedition to the Tver principality
Large-scale witch trial in Toulouse, France, in which 63 persons were accused.
Of these, eight were handed over to the state to be burned and the rest were
Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.
to 1453 The Hundred Years’ War. England and France struggle for dominance
of Western Europe.
Hundred Years’ War montage
Montage of paintings representing key battles
of the Hundred Years’ War. Clockwise, from top left: Crécy, La Rochelle,
of Cadsand: initiates hostilities. The Flemish defenders of the island
were thrown into disorder by the first use of the English longbow on
of Sluys: Edward III destroys the Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI
of France off the coast of Flanders ensuring England will not be invaded
and that the majority of the war will be fought in France.
of Auberoche: a longbow victory by Henry, Earl of Derby against a French
army at Auberoche in Gascony.
of Crécy: English longbowmen soundly defeat French cavalry near
the river Somme in Picardy. The dead included King John of Bohemia,
Duke of Lorraine, the Count of Flanders, the Count of Alençon,
the Count of Blois, the Viscount Rohan, the Lord of Laval, the Lord
of Chateaubriant, the Lord of Dinan, the Lord of Redon, 1,542 knights,
2,300 Genoese and 10,000 infantry.
of Calais: Calais falls under English control.
Espagnols sur Mer: English fleet defeats Castilian fleet in a close
of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir
call out and defeat thirty English and pro-English Breton knights under
Pembroke and Sir Robert Bramborough, Bramborough was killed.
army under De Nesle defeated by English under Bentley at Mauron in Brittany,
De Nesle killed.
of Poitiers: Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France,
France plunged into chaos. Casualties on the French side were 2,500
killed or wounded, 2,000 captured, John II, 17 lords, 13 counts, 5 viscounts
and over 100 knights.
of Auray: End of Breton War of Succession. Charles of Blois, Duke of
Brittany was killed; the Count of Auxerre and Bertrand Du Guesclin were
of Nájera: the Black Prince defeats a Castilian/French army at
Nájera in Castile.
of Pontvallain: Bertrand du Guesclin routs an English raiding army,
ending the English reputation for invincibility in open battle.
of La Rochelle: Castilian-French fleet defeats the English fleet, leading
to loss of dominance at sea and French piracy and coastal raids. John
of Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, was captured along with 400 knights and
fleet commanded by Fernando Sánchez de Tovar sacks and burns
English Channel ports, and Gravesend on the Thames.
of Aljubarrota: Nuno Álvares Pereira, commanding a small Portuguese-English
army, defeats the Castilian-French forces in Portugal.
de Vienne, having successfully strengthened the French naval situation,
lands an army in Scotland, but is forced to retreat.
of Agincourt: English longbowmen under Henry V defeat the French under
Charles d’Albret. Captured French nobles included Marshal of France
Jean Le Maingre, Charles, Duke of Orléans, John I, Duke of Bourbon
and Louis, Count of Vendôme. Killed on the French side were Antoine
of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Philip of Burgundy, Count
of Nevers and Rethel, Charles I d’Albret, Count of Dreux, the Constable
of France; John II, Count of Bethune, John I, Duke of Alençon,
Frederick of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont, Robert, Count of Marles and
Soissons, Edward III of Bar (the Duchy of Bar lost its independence
as a consequence of his death) and John VI, Count of Roucy, Jean I de
Croÿ and two of his sons, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny,
Jan I van Brederode, George Edward Stewart III, and the (Scottish) Lord
of Shetland. Other noble prisoners totalling about 1,500 were taken.
Overall, between 7,000 and 10,000 French were killed. On the English
side, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and Michael de la Pole, 3rd
Earl of Suffolk were killed, among at least 112 dead and an unknown
number of wounded.
defeat numerically greater French army at Valmont near Harfleur.
naval victory in the River Seine under Bedford.
of Rouen: Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.
of La Rochelle: Franco-Castilian fleet defeats Anglo-Hanseatic fleet.
of Bauge: The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII, commanded by
the Earl of Buchan, defeat an outmanoeuvred English force commanded
by the Duke of Clarence. English nobles captured included John Beaufort,
3rd Earl of Somerset, Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, John Holland,
2nd Duke of Exeter and Lord Fitz Walter. Killed were Thomas of Lancaster,
1st Duke of Clarence, John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville, John de Ros,
8th Baron de Ros and Sir Gilbert de Umfraville.
of Cravant: The Franco-Scottish army is defeated at Cravant on the banks
of the river Yonne. On the French/Scottish side, 6,000 were killed and
2,000 captured, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Louis,
Count of Vendôme.
of Vernuil: The Franco-Scottish forces are decisively defeated, losing
4,000 dead, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Archibald
Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas
besieging army under Arthur de Richemont dispersed by a small force
under Sir Thomas Rempstone in “The Rout of St James” in Brittany.
October 12–1429, May 8
of Orléans: English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury,
the Earl of Suffolk, and Talbot (Earl of Shrewsbury) lay siege to Orleans,
and are forced to withdraw after a relief army accompanied by Joan of
Arc arrives at the city.
of the Herrings: English force under Sir John Fastolf defeats French
and Scottish armies.
of Patay: In a reverse of Agincourt/Crécy, a French army under
La Hire, Richemont, Joan of Arc, and other commanders break through
English archers under Lord Talbot and then pursue and mop up the other
sections of the English army, killing or capturing about half (2,200)
of their troops. John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Walter, Lord
Hungerford are captured.
of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred
of Joan of Arc took place and included allegations of witchcraft.
of Gerbevoy: La Hire defeats an English force under Arundel.
forces take Paris.
of Formigny: A French force under the Comte de Clermont defeats an English
force under Thomas Kyriell.
forces conquer Gascony.
of Castillon: Jean Bureau defeats Talbot to end the Hundred Years’ War.
This was also the first battle in European history where the use of
cannon was a major factor in determining the outcome. John Talbot, 1st
Earl of Shrewsbury was killed in battle.
Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20%
– 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.
The University of Prague is founded.
1365, 1373 Tatars sacked the Ryazan principality
The fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued
to rule Orcia. The breakup of the Orc Empire, which marked the end of
Tatars attacked the southeastern suburb of Nizhniy Novgorod
and 1378 Tatars attacked the Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan principalities
Dmitri Donskoi defeated Tatars at Battle of Kulikovo
Peasants’ Revolt in England.
Khan Tokhtamysh burns down Moscow, tens of thousands of its citizens died
Tatars attacked Vyatka
The theology faculty at the University of Paris declared that all forms of
magic or divination involved some sort of pact with the devil and were thus
heresy, justifying the persecution of every possible sort of witchcraft.
Tatars attacked Nizhniy Novgorod
Peter de Gruyères, a secular judge, carries out large-scale witch trials
in Bern, Switzerland.
The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish
Tatars sacked Serpukhov, as well as the vicinities of Moscow, Pereyaslavl,
Rostov, Yuriev, Dmitrov, Nizhni Novgorod and Galich
Tatars ruined Vladimir
The Battle of Grunwald was the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic
War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights.
Tatars devastated Elets
Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.
Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope Martin V.
Witch trials of Brianqon took place in the Dauphine. About 167 local people
were burned as witches between 1428 and 1450.
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich and Kostroma
January 1– August 1503 Pope Alexander VI (Roderic Borgia)
Number of witch trails rises sharply.
Tatar incursions into the vicinities of Moscow and Kolomna
Notorious trial of Gilles de Rais, who was accused of witchcraft and debaucheries.
Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave
trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.
Tatars looted the outskirts of Ryazan, but were repelled from the city proper
Tatars attacked Nizhni Novgorod and Suzdal
1451, 1455, 1459 Tatars looted the outskirts of Moscow
Machu Picchu constructed.
The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death
of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI and the beginning of the Growth of
the Ottoman Empire.
Wars of the Roses – English civil war between the House of York and the
House of Lancaster.
– 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula
The Sengoku period is one of civil war in Japan.
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich
March 12 – Wars of the Roses – Battle of Lose-coat Field: The House
of York defeats the House of Lancaster.
– A rebellion orchestrated by King Edward’s former ally, the Earl of
Warwick, forces the King to flee England to seek support from his brother-in-law
Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
30 – Warwick releases Henry VI of England from the Tower and restores
him to the throne.
Leonardo da Vinci is listed as a master in Florence’s “Company of Artists”.
Tatars plundered Aleksin
February 19– 24 May 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus
September 13 – 12 March 1507 Cesare Borgia
April 18 – 24 June 1519 Lucrezia Borgia
The Great stand on the Ugra river marks the end of the Tatar-Orc yoke in
Dr Johann Georg Faust
1481: Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé.
Pope Innocent VIII publishes the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring
with the Greatest Ardor”) condemning witchcraft as the worst of all possible
heresies. The bull also officially grants Heinrich Krämer and James Sprenger,
Dominican inquisitors, the right to prosecute persons of any class or any
form of crime.
Henry VII defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes King of
Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger publish Malleus maleficarum (“The
Hammer of Witches”), a learned but misogynistic book blaming witchcraft
chiefly on women. It was reprinted many times thanks to the newly-invented
printing press and was a major influence on the witch-hunt hysteria of the
next two centuries. It was regarded as the standard handbook on witchcraft
until well into the 18th century.
their opinion, witchcraft was based upon sexual lust:
All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which was in women insatiable.
an interesting twist, it was now declared that not believing in witches was
A belief that there were such things as witches was so essential a part of
Catholic faith that obstinately to maintain the opposite opinion savours of
Papal Bull was issued, calling upon European nations to rescue the church
because it was “imperiled by the arts of Asmodeus.”
King Charles VIII issued an edict against fortunetellers, enchanters, necromancers
and others engaging in any sort of witchcraft.
October 12 – Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.
Jews expelled from Spain.
Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the
World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin. Italian
Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope’s
ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as
the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India
Late Middle Ages
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria
dell’ Accademia, Venice (1485-90)
Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science. European
civilization began to change beginning in 1500, leading to the scientific
and industrial revolutions. That continent began to exert political and cultural
dominance over human societies around the planet.
October 30 – The Banquet of Chestnuts is held by Cesare Borgia in the
Papal Palace of Rome.
Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) The Mona
Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda).
Mass witch trials in Biarn occurred.
England – Henry VIII crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon.
Inquisitorial witchcraft trials took place at Luxeuil.
Prosecutions for witchcraft begin in Mexico.
The penal code Carolina decrees that sorcery throughout the German empire
should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it injured any person, the
penalties of torture and death for the witch was to be burned at the stake.
Henry VIII issued a statute against witchcraft.
Repeal of statute of 1542 during the reign of Edward VI.
Toulouse witch trials took place, during which forty witches were condemned
England – Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne
La reine Élisabeth Ire d’Angleterre
dans sa robe de couronnement, à motifs de roses de Tudor et ourlée
d’hermine. Ses cheveux sont libres sur ses épaules, comme de tradition
pour le couronnement des reines, et peut être aussi comme symbole de
virginité. La peinture, d’un auteur inconnu, date de la première
décennie du XVIIe siècle. C’est une copie d’un original lui
aussi d’auteur inconnu, et perdu.
Queen Elizabeth issued a statute against witchcraft.
Weyer wrote De Praestigiis Daemonum. This book described his belief that witches
were just mentally disturbed old women and that it was the belief in witches
which was caused by Asmodeus.
He was forced to leave the Netherlands and his book was denounced by Jean
Council of Trent resolved to win back Germany from Protestantism to the Catholic
Church; intensification of religious struggles and persecutions results.
The first Chelmsford witch trials. This trial was the first to appear in a
secular court in England and resulted in the first woman being hanged for
witchcraft, Agnes Waterhouse. This trial also produced the first chapbook,
or tabloid newspaper, relating to witchcraft.
The Protestant ruler of Saxony imposes the penalty of burning for witchcraft
of every kind, including fortune-telling.
The Windsor witch trials; also the second Chelmsford trials.
Jean Bodin, a French judge, published Daemonomanie des Sorciers condemning
witches. According to Bodin, those denying the existence of witches were actually
Period in which witch-hunts are most severe.
St. Osyth Witches of Essex (case tried at Chelmsford).
Miyamoto Musashi is born.
England – Third Chelmsford witch trials.
France- Fourteen convicted witches at Tours appealed to King Henry III, who
was in turn accused of protecting witches.
William V began a witch hunt in Bavaria.
Scotland – The North Berwick witch trials began when an alleged coven of witches
was exposed, resulting in Scotland’s most celebrated witch trials and executions.
King James VI (who became James I of England), a devout believer in witches,
even took part in the proceedings. The torture applied to the victims was
among the most brutal in Scotland’s entire history of witchcraft prosecution.
Father Cornelius Loos wrote of those arrested and accused of witchcraft:
Wretched creatures were compelled by the severity of the torture to confess
things they have never done… and so by the cruel butchery innocent lives
were taken; and, by a new alchemy, gold and silver are coined from human blood.
Warboys witches of Huntingdon were put on trial.
Publication of Demonology by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England).
England – James I released his statute against witchcraft, in which he wrote
that they were “loathe to confess without torture.”
In response to a witch panic in the Basque region, La Suprema (the ruling
body of the Spanish Inquisition) issues an “Edict of Silence” forbidding
all discussion of witchcraft. For, as one inquisitor noted, “There were
neither witches nor bewitched until they were talked and written about.”
England – Lancashire witch trials.
August – The trial of Elizabeth
Bathory, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls.
Start of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) during which the witch hunt throughout
Germany was at its height.
Case of the Bilson Boy (William Perry).
Start of general decline of witch trials in France.
Trial of Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, for witchcraft.
Publication of Cautio Criminalis by Friedrich von Spee, opposing the witch
Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg marked the end of the persecutions in
this principality (1609-1632).
Case of the Faversham witches, Kent Witchfinder-general Matthew Hopkins and
the Chelmsford (or Manningtree) witch trials.
Death of Matthew Hopkins from tuberculosis.
Publication of Discovery of Witches by Matthew Hopkins.
1647 First hanging for witchcraft in New England.
1649 Case of the St. Albans witches, Hertfordshire.
1652 “Dr. Lamb’s Darling”: the trial of Anne Bodenham and the trial of the Wapping Witch (Joan Peterson) near London.
1662 The Bury St. Edmunds witch trials.
1666 Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September
Detail of the Great Fire of London by an
unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening
of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower
of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul’s Cathedral
in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.
1668-76 Outbreak of witch-hunts in Sweden.
1670 France- Rouen witch trials.
1674 Trial of Anne Foster in Northampton.
1679- 1682 The notorious Chanibre d’ardente affair: Louis XIV’s star chamber investigated
poison plots and heared evidence of widespread corruption and witchcraft.
More than 300 people were arrested and 36 executed. The affair ended with
a royal edict which denied the reality of witchcraft and sorcery.
1688 Salem, Massachusetts. – The behavior of several children in the home of the
Goodwin family in Boston results in the accusation, trial and execution of
their Irish washerwoman, Ann Glover (also known as “Goody Glover”),
1692 Between May and October, 19 people are tried and hanged as witches in Salem,