Timeline

Hubble Frontier Fields view of Abell 2744

The Big Bang

Forming of The Plane of Elemental chaos

1 billion years ago Chaos -Chaos is the only age that falls within the rule of Primordials,

Forming of The Material plane

4600-542 million years ago Precambrian

542- 488.3 million years ago Cambrian

488.7- 443.5 million years ago Ordovician

455– 430 Ordovician–Silurian extinction. Caused by the sea level and climate fluctuations, impact events, and volcanism, yield ejection of harmful gases, ashes, and aerosols into the atmosphere and, thus, provoking the greenhouse effect, atmosphere darkening and the destruction of food chains, creation of the abyss.

450 million years ago: plants colonize the land, first sharks evolve.

Dead trees in the terraces of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, US.  Photo by Thegreenj

420 million years ago: first creature took a breath of air

416 to 359.2 million years ago Devonian (The age of Fish)

400 million years ago: First insects.

375–360 Late Devonian extinction

The age of trees
The age of trees

359.2 – 299 million years ago Carboniferous (The age of trees)

315 million years ago: the evolution of the first reptiles.

299 – 251 million years ago Permian Period

251.4 million years ago: the “Great Dying” Permian mass extinction.

250 – 200 million years ago Triassic

220 million years ago: first crocodilians

201.3 million years ago: Triassic–Jurassic extinction event Massive volcanic eruptions,releasing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, which would causing intense global warming.

199.6 – 145.5 million years ago Jurassic

195 million years ago: first mammals.

This painting by Donald E. Davis depicts an asteroid slamming into tropical, shallow seas of the sulfur-rich Yucatan Peninsula in what is today southeast Mexico.  Date 28 December 1994

145.5 – 65.5 million years Cretaceous

135 million years ago: First birds

65 million years- Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event,  non-avian dinosaurs died out

65.5 to 56 million years ago The Paleocene

60 million years ago: evolution of the first primates and rodents.

56 to 34 million years ago The Eocene

55 million years ago: First known bats.

34 million to 23 million years ago The Oligocene

34 million years ago: cats evolve

23.03 to 5.332 million years ago The Miocene

5.332 million to 2.588 million years The Pliocene

4.8 million years ago: The mammoth appears.

2,588,000 The Pleistocene

2.5 million years ago: Smilodon, the best known of the sabre-toothed cats, appears.

800,000 B.C. – People lived in Mu (Lemuria).

500,000 BC: Shelter construction

400,000 BC: Spear

223,000 – 100,000 BC Hominids, such as Neanderthals disposing of deceased individuals in simple graves with limestone blocks on them, as a form of grave marking.

200,000 BC: Glue

200,000 B.C. – People inhabited Atlantis.

110,000 The beginning of the last ice age during the last years of the Pleistocene
to approximately 18,000 years ago.

Samuel Birmann (1793-1847)

100,000 years ago: Domestication of dogs

98,000 BC Neanderthals deflesh their dead, after a period of excarnation prior to burial.

75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano supereruption.

60,000 Bow and arrow.

52,000 – 50,000 – Atlantean technology advances.

50,000 – Polar shift. Lemuria and Atlantis lose land to the sea.

50,000 B.C. – Atlantis becomes five islands.

50,000 B.C. until 10,000 B. C. Delphynes from Lemuria move to Central and South America.

36,000 BC: Cloth woven from flax fiber

35,000 BC: Flute

33,000 fey migrate from the Otherworld creating shared cultures between them and humans.

31,000 years ago: Cave paintings

30,000 BC Alulim was the first king of Eridu, and the first king of Sumer, making him the first recorded king in the world. Enki Avatar of Enlil, the god of Eridu brought civilization to Sumer at this point.

30,000-11,000 B.C. – First native peoples enter North America from Asia via Beringia.

28,000 BC Nacaals (Delphynes priests from Lemuria) move to India and Tibet.

28,000 B.C. to 18,000 B.C. – Atlantis loses land and becomes one island with a chain of islands connecting it to the North American continent. Atlanteans move to lands around the Atlantic Ocean. Lemuria looses a great deal of its land

28,000 B.C. – The Earth’s magnetic pole moves.

27,000 years ago. End of shared cultures located around central and south western France, between fey and humans.

25,000 – 21,000 BC Individual skulls and/or long bones begin to be stained with red ochre and are separately buried to produce sacred relics.Various objects are being included in the graves (i.e. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, “baton” antlers, flint blades, etc.).

22,000 years ago. No-humans believed to have become extinct in Europe.

20,000 B.C. – Large Atlantean settlement in the Bahama Bank area.

20,000 years ago. Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history proper began.

18,000 years ago. The last glacial period ends; rise of human civilization.

17880 Chaos gives birth to Gaia

17700 Gaia gives birth to Uranus

1750 Uranus rapes Gaia but he hated the children she bore him. The Titans, six sons and six daughters, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes He imprisoned Gaia’s youngest children in Tartarus, deep within Earth, which they caused pain to Gaia. She shaped a great flint-bladed sickle and asked her sons to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus, youngest of the Titans, was willing.

17,100
The Titans fight Uranus
and eventually he is defeated by Cronus.
Cronus cuts off Uranus‘ genitals with
a sickle and throws theminto the sea. From the blood which spilled from Uranus
onto the Earth came forth the Gigantes,
the three avenging Furies—the
Erinyes
— and Meliae, the ash-nymphs and Aphrodite
emerges naked from the sea and travels to Cyprus.

The Golden Age of Mankind (17100BC-16740BC) The Golden Age is the
only age that falls within the rule of Titans,

The Golden Age, oil on copper painting by Joachim Wtewael, 1605, Metropolitan Museum of Art Date (1605) Joachim Wtewael (1566–1638)

The Golden Age, oil on copper painting by
Joachim Wtewael, 1605, Metropolitan Museum of Art Date (1605) Joachim Wtewael
(1566–1638)

17050-16750
Cronus becomes ruler of Greece. Imprisons the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus, then organises the Titans giving each a dominion.

17030 BC Cronus is warned not to take Rhea as his wife or have children with her, otherwise one of his children will dethrone him. He ignores this and Rhea gives birth to HestiaDemeter, HeraHades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cronus swallows his children in order to avoid the prophesy but astone is substituted by Rhea in place of Zeus
who is taken by his mother into hiding in Crete.

17030-16840
Zeus grows up in the Dictyan caves near Lato. When fully gown he makes Cronus drunk, causing him to vomit out his brothers and sisters.

1684 The Titanomachy

Fall of the Titans 1588 Oil on canvas, 239 cm x 307 cm Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

Fall of the Titans 1588 Oil
on canvas, 239 cm x 307 cm Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

The
Titanomachy, or War of the Titans, was the ten-year series of battles between
the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans,
based on Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount
Olympus. This Titanomachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans, Battle
of Gods, or just The Titan War.

After
the youngest Titan, Cronus, overthrew
his own father, Uranus, with the help
of his mother Gaia. Cronus
then castrated his father, took his throne, and released his fellow Titan
siblings, who had been locked away in Tartarus
under Uranus’ tyrannical and selfish
reign.

However,
as Uranus was usurped, he made a prophecy
that Cronus’ own children would rebel
against his rule and castrate and depose him just as he and his siblings had
done to him. For fear of his unborn children rising against him, Cronus now
turned into the terrible king his father Uranus had been fearing their strenght
he re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires
and Cyclopes in Tartarus.


After marrying from his wife (and sister) Rhea, he swallowed each of his children
whole as they were born – Hestia, Demeter,
Hera, Hades, and
Poseidon. Being immortal, this did not kill
them, but they remained trapped inside him. Rhea grieved for the loss of her
children. So, when she was close to giving birth to Zeus,
she consulted with her parents Gaia and Uranus. They revealed the future to
her, showing her how to thwart Cronus. When Cronus came to Rhea for their
child, Rhea gave him instead a stone, wrapped in cloths. Not noticing, he
swallowed the stone instead. Rhea brought Zeus
to a cave on an abandoned island, where Zeus
was raised.

When
Zeus grew up, he went to one of Cronus‘ parties disguised as a fellow Titan,
and gave Cronus some special potion, which caused Cronus to vomit up his swallowed
siblings. Zeus then led his brothers and sisters
in rebellion against the Titans.

Now
the Olympians, led by Zeus, declared war against
the previous generation of deities, the Titans. The Titans who fought were
led by Cronus and included: Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Atlas, and Menoetius.
The Olympians (Zesus’s siblings) led by Zeus. Additionally, the Hecatonchires,
the Gigantes and Cyclopes,
who had been imprisoned by Cronus, assisted in the revolt. The Hecatonchires
helped the Olympians by hurling huge stones at the Titans. The Cyclopes
helped by crafting Zeus‘ famous weapon, the lightning
bolt.

Having
at last won victory after a full decade of war, the Olympian gods divided
the spoils between themselves, granting dominion of the heavens and sky to
Zeus, the sea to Poseidon, and the underworld
to Hades. The Olympians then shut the defeated Titans within Tartarus. However,
since during the war Oceanus and the Titanides (female Titans), Thia, Rhea,
Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Hecate, Metis and
Tethys, had remained neutral, they were not punished by Zeus.
Some other Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus
include: Atlas, Cronus, Epimetheus,
Menoetius, and Prometheus. Zeus gave Atlas a different punishment. The sky,
nearly collapsed onto the earth after the war because so much fighting had
occurred below. As a result, Zeus condemned Atlas to hold up the heavens and
sky for eternity. Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus switched sides and
aided Zeus in the war therefore they were not punished. Cronus manage to flee
after the war, thereby avoiding imprisonment in Tartarus. The Hecatonchires
remained to guard over the prisoners of Tartarus.

16840
Inachus becomes king and judges that the land of the Peloponnese belongs to
Hera

16740
Victory for Zeus. Cronus is exiled to Elysia
or Sicily. Zeus rules the heavens, Poseidon the
sea and Hades the underworld. The land is common to all of the Gods.


16740 Zeus takes his sister Hera as wife

16740
Births of Hephaestus, Ares,
Eris, Hebe.

The second age: The Silver Age of Mankind (1674-1628) – The Silver Age and
every age that follows fall within the rule of The Gods.

Stone Age: the feast. Detail 2 Date (1883) Viktor Vasnetsov (1848–1926)

Stone Age: the feast. Detail 2 Date (1883)
Viktor Vasnetsov (1848–1926)

In
the silver age Zeus reduced the spring, and reconstructed the year into four
seasons, so that men for the first time sought the shelter of houses and had
to labor to supply their food.

The
first seeds of grain were placed in the ground since now man had to gather
their own food. A child grew up at his mother’s side a hundred years, but
adulthood lasted a short time.

Bridging
the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human
affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved
together. These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more
freely than they did later.

16740-67
Births of Apollo, Artemis,
Hermes, Athena
by different mothers.

16670
Prometheus is chained to the rocks
after stealing the secret of fire from the Gods and giving it to man

16670
Zeus has affair with Io the daughter of Inachus
and carries her off to Egypt where she marries Telegonus.

16640
Herakles the Dactyl holds the first Olympic Games

16590
Phoroneus son of Inachus, the first man, rules over the entire Peloponnese
from Phronocium later to become Argos

16540
Epimetheus is given Pandora
to be his wife. Pandora is
given a jar as a wedding present and told not to open it. Pandora
opens it and mankind suffers the consequences of disobedience.

16450
Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt.

16400
Gigantomachy The Battle of the Gods and Giants errupts and Porphyrion is defeated.

Gigantes
a race of giants children of Gaia, were fertilized
by the blood of Uranus that resulted
from his castration by Cronus.

The
Gigantes rose up in arms against
the Olympians in an attempt to end the Olympian reign. They tested the strength
of the Olympian gods in what is known as the Gigantomachia or Gigantomachy.
Led on by Alcyoneus, Porphyrion and Enceladus
the Gigantes hoped to reach the top of Mount Olympus by stacking the mountain
ranges of Thessaly, Pelion and Ossa, on top of each other. With the aid of
their powerful weapons the Olympians defeated the Gigantes and quelled the
rebellion, confirming their reign over the earth, sea, and heaven, and confining
the Gigantes to Tartarus
.

16280
Epaphus is murdered. The Titans attempt to regain power but fail. Atlas is
punished by being made to carry the heavens on his shoulders. Typhon is defeated
and imprisoned under a volcano.

16,000
years ago. Pottery

15,000
B.C. – Descendants of people from Lemuria from India, Burma, Tibet to upper
Egypt.

14,000
B.C. – Atlanteans settled in southern Egypt.

13,000
years ago. Beginning of the Holocene extinction generally from the impact
of humans.

Throughout
more than 90% of Mankinds history, Humans lived in small bands as nomadic
hunter-gatherers. As language became more complex, the ability to remember
and communicate information resulted in a new replicator: the meme. Ideas
could be exchanged quickly and passed down the generations.

13,000
years ago. earliest evidence of human warfare.

12,000
B.C. – The Bird-Serpent War.

11,000
B.C. – Disappearance of the land bridge between North America and Asia.

10500-8000
BC: the Natufians, groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers in the western fertile
crescent, developed a way of life that revolutionized the world; they lived
in permanent 100 person villages (such as Nahal Oren), built wooden huts with
stone foundations, harvested wild grains with flint sickles,
and used grinding stones to process their harvests. Their cities included
the city of Jericho. They lived in semi-subterranean, semi-circle houses.

10,000
years ago.
Defeat of the Frost Giants

10,000
years ago. Holocene —Dire Wolf,
Smilodon, Giant Beaver, Ground Sloth, Giant Imperial Mammoth, Woolly Mammoth,
Mastodons, Giant Short-Faced Bear, American Cheetah, Scimitar Cats (Homotherium),
American Camels, American Horses, and American Lions all become extinct.

10,000
BC Earliest settlers arrive in Ireland, in the Mesolithic or Middle Stone
Age period. They cross by land bridge from Scotland. These people are mainly
hunters but they did not war as they were still worshipers of the Great Goddess.
Retreat of ice and warming of climate in Wales. Nomadic hunter gatherers in
Anglesey and Lleyn.

End
of the Paleolithic Period, All continents (except Antarctica) inhabited, Agriculture
and the domestication of animals begins.

9600
BC. Atlantis was a naval power that conquered many parts of Western Europe
and Africa.

Nicholas Roerich (1874–1947)

Nicholas Roerich (1874–1947)

9564
BC: Destruction of Atlantis the Atlantean priesthood flee to establish colonies
in the British Isles, Western Europe, North Africa and South America. Rise
of the Northern Mystery Tradition centered on the island Thule and the Aryan
culture. Invention of the Runic Alphabet.

9500
BC; First temples.

9000
BC Earliest walled cities

9000
BC: settlements domesticate dogs and, instead of harvesting wild grains, domesticated
barley, emmer, wheat, and vegetables.

8500
– 7000 years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the
systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture. This spread to neighboring
regions, and developed independently elsewhere, until most Humans lived sedentary
lives in permanent settlements as farmers.

Not
all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the
globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia. However, among
those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative stability and
increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand.

Agriculture
had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before.
Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing
division of labor. This led to Earth’s first civilization at Sumer in
the Middle East

8000-6000
BC: Kiffian culture

7000
BC: ancient Mesopotamians (“between the rivers”) developed the first
large populated permanent settlements (such as Jarmo and Jericho); they lived
in mud brick multi-room houses with mud ovens, used pottery, traded with other
villages in the fertile crescent, and domesticated goats, sheep, and pigs.

6,000
B.C. – Cataclysm in Bimini.

6000
BC: the Hassuna cultures lived in organized villages with a social courtyard
containing a religious shrine, surrounded by mud brick houses, and around
the villages were five foot thick walls with community grain or water storage
towers; they introduced irrigation for farming, canals for trade, decorated
pottery, and lead or copper beads.

5500
BC: Agriculture started in Ancient Egypt.

5500
BC: the Halafian cultures were the first to specialize labor and have cobblestone
roads; they were the first to use the potter’s wheel and the Kiln to make
pottery with brilliantly colored realistic pictures and shapes.

5000
B.C. – Beginning of agriculture in the Tehuacán Valley matorral.

4500-2500
BC: Tenerians culture, colonized the region in present Niger

4000
BC: Syrian and Arabian nomads raided southern Mesopotamia, they were eventually
absorbed into the Ubadian population.

4000-3200
BC: the Ubaidian cultures made pottery decorated with wave patterns using
the potter’s wheel; they established many farming settlements including Eridu,
Uruk, Adab, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. They lived
in lower Mesopotamia.

The
Ubaidian settlements emerged as small village communities in the foothills
surrounding great river valleys; because they lived close to each other the
control over water streams, harvest, and domestication became easier to control
and caused increased food production.

As
food production increased it was able to supply larger communities and the
villages grew into cities, civilization first emerged; cities were the foundation
of civilization because with them came other civilizing elements including
religious cults, political systems, written language, and monumental architecture.

4000
years ago. Domestication of the horse

4000
BC In Brittain earliest-known Druidic camps or communities appear.

3600
years ago. In Egypt, mummification around this time in Hierankopolis.

3700
Beginning of
the Early Minoan period on Crete

3500
BC: the Sumerians, a nomadic people from the Armenian Plateau northeast of
Mesopotamia, migrated into Mesopotamia and intermingled with the population;
they brought with them horse-drawn chariots and metallurgy used to make copper
helmets and spears.

Under
the Sumerians the old cities developed into city-states, governed by a theocratic
assembly of priests and, because priests knew what the gods “wanted,”
they were very influential to the city-states; religion was also important
in architecture because the most important building in each city-state was
the ziggurat, the temple (or home) of the patron god of that city-state.

The
Sumerian city-states were in constant competition with each other, even if
by war; despite wars, the governments of the city-states generally maintained
friendly relations because, they as aristocrats, held a special bond as the
elite of a people who shared a common religion, language, and culture.

3500
– 3000 BC First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon
Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as “corpse exposure”
was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be
consumed by animals and birds.

3200
BC: a writing system was developed in order to keep administrative records;
it was called cuneiform and was made up of pictograms (pictures) describing
objects and ideograms describing ideas or actions.

The
invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and
libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission
of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity
and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and Wisdom.

3100
years ago. The earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.

2958 Cessair she was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland.

To escape an oncoming Flood,they sail to Ireland however, when they attempt to land, ships are lost. The only survivors are Cessair a hundred and forty-nine other women, and three men.

The men are shared out evenly among the women. However, two soon die. Fintán is left with all the women but is unable to cope and so he flees. When the Flood comes, Fintán is the only one to survive. He becomes a salmon and later an eagle and a hawk, living for 5,500 years after the Flood, whence he becomes a man again and recounts Ireland’s history.

2800 Etana became the first Sumerian monarch and established the Kish dynasty;
he put northern Mesopotamia under his control, built the first monumental
building as his palace, and called himself king of the “four quarters
of the world”; Meskiaggasher established the Uruk dynasty and controlled
most of the south.

2800-2670
BC: the Kish dynasty established a powerful kingship and because it was situated
at a critical spot on the Euphrates river it controlled irrigation flow to
the southern city-states and thus kept the Uruk dynasty, in the south, under
control.

2900
BC: because the city-states were at constant war, they needed a strong military
leader to oversee war and large building projects; they began to replace theocracies
with hereditary monarchies and according to ancient tablets, “the kingship
came down from heaven.”

2750
BC: Enmerkar succeeded his father Meskiaggasher as king of Uruk; he and his
general Lugalbanda (who also succeeded Enmerkar as king) conquered Aratta,
a city in northeastern Mesopotamia and marked the decreasing power of Kish
in the north; their deeds formed the basis of the Lugalbanda Epic.

2700
BC: Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.

2700
BC: Gilgamesh, grandson of Enmerkar, became king of Uruk; he constructed the
brick walls around Uruk and his deeds formed the basis of the Gilgamesh Epic;
Enmebaragesi became king of Kish, he ordered the construction of the Temple
of Enlil at Nippur, which became the spiritual center of Sumer, and he led
victorious campaigns against Elam.

2680 The second group of people to settle in Ireland, the Muintir Partholóin (people of Partholón) arrive. They are responsible for introducing such things as farming, cooking, brewing and buildings. After some years, they all die of plague in a single week.

Partholón was the son of Sera, a king of Greece, and fled his homeland after murdering his father and mother. He lost his left eye in the attack on his parents. He and his followers set off from Greece, sailed via Sicily, around Iberia, and arrived in Ireland from the west, having travelled for two and a half months.

They battle and defeat the Fomorian Titans, who are led by Cichol Gricenchos, at Magh Ithe, in the first battle fought in Ireland.

2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid

2670
years ago. Mesanepada established the Ur dynasty; he defeated Agga, king of
Kish, which ended the Kish dynasty, and put the Uruk and Ur dynasties simultaneously
in power.

2670-2370
years ago. the Uruk dynasty became weak from constant attacks in the north
which only strengthened the power of the Ur dynasty in the south.

2650 The Muintir Partholóin all die from plague

2640
years ago. The cultivation and weaving of silk starts to be a closely guarded
secret in China.

2600
years ago. Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization
expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan,
much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region
of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of
its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban
planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus
script for its writing system.

2600
years ago. Bactrian Camel and Dromedary are domesticated

2600
years ago. Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza

2600
BCE Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts
are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex
setup—including altar, portal, station stones, etc.—and shows consideration
of solar alignments.

2297 – A flood devastates China during the reign of Emperor Yao

2525
years ago. Lugalannemudu of Adab, a city in the north, united northern Sumer
under his control; his power quickly passed to Mesilim, king of Kish; these
conquests by the northern city-states ended the Uruk dynasty and put the Ur
dynasty in complete power.

2500
years ago. the construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge begins and continues
for the next five hundred years.

2425
years ago. Eannatum established the Lagash dynasty; he united Sumer under
his control, called himself king of Kish, and conquered much neighboring territory.

2452
years ago.Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, a group of legendary rulers
in Ancient China.

2370
years ago. Urukagina of became king of Lagash; he enacted many social reforms
and during his reign Lugalzagesi, king of Umma, defeated him and took control
of Sumer, which went into a state of civil strife.

2350
years ago. Sargon I, a Kish general, usurped and became king of Kish; he defeated
Lugalzagesi and took control of Sumer, built his capital at Akkad and established
the Akkadian dynasty, he centralized trade, made his daughter priestess of
Ur, repaired the irrigation systems, and created the first professional army
of 5400 men.

2350 Nemed is the leader of the third group of people to settle in Ireland, who are referred to as the Muintir Nemid, “people of Nemed”. They arrive thirty years after their predecessors, the Muintir Partholóin, had died out.

The Muintir Nemid set sail from the Caspian Sea.

Nemed won four battles against the Fomorian Titans. However, nine years after arriving in Ireland, Nemed dies of plague along with thousands of his people.

The remaining Muintir Nemid are then oppressed by the Fomorians Morc and Conand, who lived in Conand’s Glass Tower, on an island off the coast. Each Samhain, they must give two thirds of their children, their corn and their milk to the Fomorians. After many years, the Muintir Nemid rise up against the Fomorians and attack the Conand’s Tower with 60,000 warriors (30,000 on sea and 30,000 on land), defeating Conand. Morc then attacks, and almost all of the Nemedians are killed in a tidal wave. Only one ship escapes. The island would again be empty for another 200 years.

2250
years ago. Manituu, son of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he defeated “32
cities in Iran,” the Elamites, and the many other city-states which tested
his military strength.

2240
years ago. Akkad, capital of the Akkadian Empire, becomes the largest city
in the world, surpassing Memphis, capital of Egypt.

2230
years ago. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he extended
the empire to “the four quarters of the world” and was the first
king to deify himself.

2218
years ago. the Gutians, a group of nomadic peoples east of Mesopotamia, swept
through Mesopotamia, destroyed Akkad, and conquered Sumer; in the ancient
writings Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin angered the god Enlil, who made the Gutians
attack.

2190 – Shi Huang Ti, first ruler of unified China, begins construction of the Great Wall of China using prisoners of war as slave labor.

2181
years ago. Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt

2160
years ago. Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe

2144
years ago. Gudea became king of Lagash; despite Gutian rule of Sumer he took
control of southern Mesopotamia, encouraged literature, and initiated religious
constructions; after his death he was deified and many magnificent statues
were produced in his honor.

2130
years ago. Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor

2134
years ago. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I

2120
years ago. Utuhegal became king of Uruk; he and his general, Ur-Nammu, defeated
the Gutians and drove them from Sumer; Utuhegal rewarded Ur-Nammu by making
him governor of Ur.

2113
BC: Ur-Nammu established the 3rd Ur dynasty and declared himself king of Sumer
and Akkad; he defeated Utuhegal, king of Uruk, and Nammahani, king of Lagash,
united Sumer under his rule, constructed many temples, and established the
first code of laws which emphasized the king’s duty to protect the people
against injustice.

2104
BC – The Ogygian Deluge occurs.

2095
BC: Shulgi succeeded his father Ur-Nammu as king of Ur; during his reign their
was a drastic water shortage, he reorganized irrigation systems and encouraged
economic records on clay tablets.

2061
BC Partholón arrives in Ireland

2037
BC—Emperor Shen Nong makes first (perhaps mythical) tea drink by boiling
fresh leaves

2004
BC: the Elamites, a group of nomadic peoples in the north, invaded Sumer;
they destroyed Ur, captured Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur, ended the 3rd Ur Dynasty,
and sent Sumer into civil strife; regular imports of tin from Britain began
to go throughout Europe and the Middle East, making the use of bronze to make
tools and weapons possible.

2000
BC Babylon’s Code of Hammurabi instructs, “If a man has laid a charge
of witchcraft and has not justified it, he upon whom the witchcraft is laid
shall go to the holy river; he shall plunge into the holy river and if the
holy river overcome him, he who accused him shall take to himself his house.”

2000 completion of Stonehenge.

2000
BC – Glass appears.

1934- 1897

Firbolg High Kings rule Ireland

1900
BC. First Minoan palace built at Knossos c.

1900: the Amorites, a group of nomadic peoples from Syria encouraged by the
internal strife, invaded and conquered Sumer; they intermingled with the Sumerians
and obtained many high positions, including becoming kings of cities, the
most powerful being the Isin dynasty.

1897 Tuatha Dé Danann arrive in Ireland.

They came from four otherworld cities The
Cities of Danu
Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias–where they acquired their magical skills and attributes. Arriving in ships on the coast of the Conmaicne Mara’s territory. They immediately burnt the ships “so that they should not think of retreating to them; and the smoke and the mist that came from the vessels filled the neighboring land and air. Therefore it was conceived that they had arrived in clouds of mist”.

Led by their king, Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuireadh on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland.

The Dagda was worshipped leader of the pantheon of gods and was commonly known as the
‘father of all’. Later the Tuatha Dé Danann were driven back to the otherworld  by invaders
and thereafter inhabited their world of the hills and mountains.

1894:
Sumu-abum, an Amorite, conquered a small portion of land in middle Mesopotamia;
he built up the small village of Babylon and there ruled as king.

1897–1890 BC Bres Fomorian Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland

1890–1870 Nuada Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland

1870–1830 Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland

1823 BC: Rim-Sin, an Amorite, became king of Larsa; he conquered Isin, ending its reign of power, and united Sumer under the rule of the Larsa dynasty.

1792 BC: Hammurabi, an Amorite, became king of Babylon; he defeated Rim-Sin, conquered Mesopotamia, and established the Babylon Dynasty; he oversaw navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, construction, cleared block rivers, punished dishonest officials, reformed the calendar, and codified the Sumerian laws in the Code of Hammurabi with its primary idea, “an eye for an eye and
a tooth for a tooth.”

1750 BC: Samsu-iluna succeeded his father Hammurabi as king of Babylon; he defeated the first invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites, a group of nomadic peoples from the east.

1731 BC Nemedians arrived in Ireland

1700 BC Palace at Knossos destroyed c. then rebuilt (14 royal tombs at Mycenae date between 1650-1550. Thera volcano erupts in

1628. Minoan palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquakes c.1600)

1700 Milesian High Kings arrive and drive the Tuatha Dé Danann back to the cities of Danu.

The third age: The First Brazen Age of Mankind (1628-1472)

Defeat of rebel angels, by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Defeat of rebel angels, by Pieter Bruegel
the Elder

Men
of the Bronze Age were hard. War was their purpose and passion. Not only arms
and tools, but their very homes were forged of bronze. The men of this age
were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits but dwell
in the “dank house of Hades”. It came to an end with the flood of
Deucalion.

1628
Zeus seduces Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus
(first of Zeus affairs with mortal women)

1628
Car the son of Phoroneus founds the city of Megara

1628
Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt

1607
Argus the grandson of Phoroneus founds the city of Argos

(Achaean
invaders reach region of Mycenae c.1600 BC)

1595
BC: the Hittites swept through Babylonia, took prisoners, and looted wealth;
they brought with them the use of iron, which was used to make spears and
battle axes; the Kassites proceeded the Hittites, conquered Babylonia, and
established the Kassite dynasty.

1572
Criasus the son of Argus becomes king of Argos. Peiras his brother, founds
the first temple of Hera in Argolis.

1570
BC: Agum, a Kassite, became king of Babylonia; he reconquered lost lands and
extended his control over all Mesopotamia.

1527
Lelex is the first king in Lacedaemonia.

1517
Pelasgus rules over Arcadia.

1510
Polycaon son of Lelex rules in Messenia and Myles rules in Sparta.

1500 Emergence of Eastern Woodland culture in North America


1447-1407 BC Lugh Tuatha Dé Danann High
King of Ireland

1488-1460
Lycaon provokes the Gods anger by murdering his son Nyctimus and serving him
up to the Gods.

1488
Danaus flees from Aegyptus to Rhodes then takes Pelasgian Argos

(c.1480
BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving
tribute from the Danaioi)

1487
Lycaon king of Arkadia, introduces Zeus cult

1484
Cecrops king of Athens introduces Zeus cult

1472
Danaus becomes king of Argos in the Peloponnese after Gelanor steps down

Hesiod’s fourth age: The Heroic or Second
Brazen Age (1460BC-1103BC)
– In this period men lived with noble demigods and heroes.

The
monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes.
To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition,
the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War.

Before
the Hellenic Wars

1460
A flood is sent by Zeus to destroy all of mankind
after Lycaon outrages the Gods. Deucalion and his family escape in an Ark,
which Prometheus tells him to build.

1450 BC—Minoan Second Palace period ends and Late Minoan culture starts.

(Mycenaean’s
conquer Minoans in Crete c.1450 BC. Earthquake destroys city of Knossos c.1450
BC. Palace is rebuilt and used until c.1380 BC)

1440
Dardanus founds Troy after being given a share in the kingdom of Teucer king
of Phrygia

(Tudhaliya
II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440)

1438
Zeus violates Europe, birth of Minos

1437
BC—King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is
succeeded by his son Pandion I

1437
Cadmus colonises Boeotia and founds Thebes.

1421
Minos I becomes king of Crete

1420
BC—Crete conquered by Mycenae start of the Mycenaean period.

1420
Dionysus the son of Zeus
and Semele daughter of Cadmus is born

1420
Persephone the daughter of Demeter is abducted
by Hades

1410
Olympic Games held 50 years after the flood

1407-1337
BC The Dagda Tuatha Dé Danann High
King of Ireland

1404
Dionysus is entertained by Amphyction king of Athens

1400
Cinyras the son of Paphos the son of Pygmalion the son of Belus funds the
city of Paphos in Cyprus

(Cyprus
is conquered by the Mycenaean’s and Minoan colony wiped out c.1400)

1400 —Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the
world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt.

1399
Erichthonius now rules at Athens

1399
Erichthonius rules at Troy

1397
Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is
succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.

1386
Dionysus known as Tauro Kranos restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers
Damascus and all of India.

(Amenhotep
III reigns in Egypt from 1386-1349 and refers to Greek cities such including
Amyclae in his records, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400,
Tudhaliya III rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.)

1386
Dionysus drives Pentheus the king of Thebes to madness

1385
Cadmus leaves Thebes and goes to Illyria

1377
Tectemus the son of Dorus founds colony in Crete and fathers Asterius

(Second
Mycenaean wave of colonisation in Crete puts and end to Minoan palace civilisation
c.1400 BC)

1375
Minoan culture ends on Crete.

1375
Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned.

1374
Pandion becomes king of Athens

1370
Athamas rules over Boeotia

1368
Death of Erichthonius, King of Dardania.

1365
Perseus son of Danae by Zeus
is born

1363
Apollo fathers Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas

1360
Epopeus king of Sicyon at war with Thebes

1357
Pandions daughter Philomela marries Tereus king of Thrace to form alliance
against Theban king Labdacus

1354
Erechtheus becomes king of Athens

1345
Phrixus while a boy is taken to Colchis by a Golden Lamb

1344
Pegasus the winged horse born from Medusa’s
blood after she is slain by Perseus

1342-1320
The children of Perseus and
Andromeda are born

(Fortress
of Mycenae built between 1400 and 1200)

1341
Perseus accidentally kills
his grandfather Acrisius at funeral Games of King Teutamides father

1337-1327
BC Delbáeth Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland

1336
Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Phthia and his brothers

1333
Bellerophon goes to king
Proetus court to be purified

1329
Cecrops the eldest son
of Erechtheus is chosen by Xuthus to become king of Athens

1327-1317
Fiacha Tuatha Dé Danann High King of Ireland

1325
Amphion kills Lycus and becomes king of Thebes

1323
BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.

1320
Melampus the seer cures the madness of the Argive women and receives one third
of Proetus kingdom and his brother Bias another third. First temple built
to Dionysus.

1315-1264
Pelops the son of Tantalus king of Phrygia and Lydia flees Asia Minor and
rules in Pisa and Olympia

(Mursilis
II king of the Hittites dies in 1315 BC)

1314
Pelops sister Niobe marries Amphion king of Thebes

1314
Pelops holds Olympic Games

1314
The Argonauts Calais and Zetes are born to Oreithyia and Boreas

1314
Pelops marries Hippodamia

1310
Electryon becomes king of Mycenae

1309
BC—Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years
and is succeeded by his son Pandion II. Pandion II was later driven into exile
from Athens by the sons of Cecrops II’s brother (or possibly nephew) Metion,
so that Metion could take power. Pandion II fled to Megara, where he married
the King’s daughter and eventually inherited the throne. After his death,
Pandion II’s sons returned to Athens and drove out the sons of Metion.

1309
Pandion becomes king of Athens and is expelled by the sons of Metion

1301
Oebalus becomes the second husband of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus

1300
Laius caries off Chrysippus the son of Pelops and Astyoche

1299
Minos II the grandson of Minos becomes king of Crete after Asterius dies

1290
Procris leaves her husband and is seduced by Minos in Crete

1317-1287
BC Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine Tuatha Dé Danann High
Kings of Ireland

1287
BC -80 AD Milesian High Kings of Ireland

1286-1264
Sthenelus takes throne of Mycenae after Amphitryon kills Electryon son of
Perseus

February 10 1286 Heracles is conceived when Zeus extends one night into three

November 4 1286 Heracles is born nine months later and named Palaemon

1285 Heracles strangles 2 serpents sent by Hera

1285 Asclepius is born to Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus

1284 Aegeus regains Athens from the sons of Metion

1283 Bias of Priene killed by his nephew Pylas

1282 BC—Pandion II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a nominal reign of 25 years. He reportedly only reigned in Megara while Athens and the rest of Attica were under the control of an alliance of Nobles led by his uncle Metion (son of Erechtheus of Athens) and his sons (including in some accounts Daedalus). His four sons lead a successful military campaign to regain the throne. Aegeus becomes King of Athens, Nisos reigns in Megara, Lykos in Euboea and Pallas in southern Attica.

The
monumental events of Heracles
are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also
ascribed three great events: the Argonautic expedition, the Theban Cycle and
the Trojan War.

1282
Aeacus helps Poseidon build the walls of Troy for Laodamaon now king of Troy

1274
Pelias imprisons Aeson and takes the throne after the birth of Jason

1271
Theseus is born

1270
Aegeus accidentally kills Minos son Androgeus at Games held in honour of Laius
king of Thebes and is forced to pay a tribute of 7 Athenian boys and girls
every 9 years

1270
All of Greece plagued by earthquakes and famine due to Pelops murder of Stymphalus
or the Athenians murder of Androgeus and Aeacus is sent to pray for deliverance.

1269
Atreus and Thyestes march against Laius the king of Thebes

1269-1235
Oedipus kills Laius the king of Thebes and marries his own mother Iocasta

1268
Heracles lies with Thespius
50 daughters and kills the Lion of Cithaeron

1264
Heracles marries Megara after
defeating the Minyans while Creon is king of Thebes in place of Laius

1258-1246 The Labours of Heracles take place while Eurystheus is king of Mycenae

1253 Herakles brings back Alcestis the wife of Admetus from death

1252 Theseus kills the Minotaur at the centre of the Labyrinth built by Daedelus

1251 The Caledonian Boar hunt

1248 Heracles goes to Hades to bring back Cerberus

1247 The nine Muses who said to be the daughters of Peirus the Macedonian engage in a musical contest with Thamyris

1247 The marriage of Peleus to his second wife Thetis

1246 The birth of Achilles

1246 The 4 month long voyage of Jason and the Argonauts

1246 BC Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.

1246-1243 Heracles is sold as a slave to Omphale after killing Iphitus

1246 Eumolpus is victorious in the flute contest at Pelias funeral games

1245
Orpheus tries to rescue Euridice from Hades

1243
Heracles sacks Troy and puts
a young Priam on the throne
(Troy
VII destroyed c.1250 BC)

1243-1238
Heracles settles old scores
in the Peloponnese

1242
Heracles conquers Elis and
establishes Olympic Games. Polydeuces is champion Boxer.

1241
Heracles places Nestor who
is still a boy on the throne of Messenia after killing his brothers and father
king Neleus of Pylos for helping the Elians

1240
Heracles defeats the sons
of Hippocoon and restores the throne of Sparta to Tyndareus

1239
Heracles leaves the Peloponnese
and marries Deianira

1238
Hyllus is born

1236
Medea flees from Corinth after
murdering Glauce the daughter of Creon

1235
Heracles exiled to Thrachis
after killing one of Oeneus kinsmen

1234
Nessus carries of Deianira and is killed by Heracles
with a poison arrow

1233
The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus’s
affairs with mortals)

1232
Chiron accidentally shot in
the foot while entertaining Heracles
and Achilles his student, forcing him to give up his immortality

1230
The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.

1229
Heracles kills Cycnus the
son of Ares

1227
Prophecy revealed from Oracle of Dodona that Heracles
would die in 15 months after carrying off Iole

August
12 1226 Heracles dies and
becomes a god

The
Hellenic Wars

1225
The seven make war against Thebes

1225
BC: Tukulti-Ninurta I, king of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, captured Babylon
and extended his rule through northern Mesopotamia; although the Kassite dynasty
continued to rule, it was only nominal.

1140
BC: Shutruk-Nahhunte I, king of Elam, captured Babylon; he ended the Kassite
dynasty and placed his son Shilhak-Inshushinak on the throne; he encouraged
sculpture and literature.

1224
Theseus captures Thebes and
buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.

1223
Eurystheus defeated by Theseus
and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles

1222
Centauromachy


Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, by Piero di Cosimo (notice the female centaur with a male centaur in the foreground).

Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, by Piero di Cosimo (notice
the female centaur with a male centaur in the foreground).

The
battle with the Centaurs at the wedding
feast of Pirithous, the Centauromachy. The centaurs had been invited, but,
unused to wine, their wild nature came to the fore. When the bride was presented
to greet the guests, the centaur Eurytion leapt up and attempted to rape her.
All the other centaurs were up in a moment. In the battle that ensued, Theseus
came to the Lapiths’ aid. In the battle the Lapith Caeneus was killed, and
the defeated Centaurs were expelled from
Thessaly to the northwest.

March
5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae

1221
Theseus abducts Helen when
she is 12 years old and he is 50 and spends 4 years in Tartarus after Helens
brothers the Dioscuri capture
Athens

1220
Castor, Polydeuces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding

1218
After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes
takes the throne of Mycenae

1215
Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Thyestes.

1215
The Epigoni attack Thebes

1213
Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90

1213
The Beauty contest. Menelaus marries Helen.

1207
Theseus is freed from Tartatrus
by Heracles and returns to
Athens.

1207
The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.

1206
Theseus, legendary King of
Athens, is
deposed after a reign of 30 years and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson
of Erichthonius II of Athens
and second cousin of Theseus’ father Aegeus. Menestheus is reportedly assisted
by Castor and Polydeuces of Sparta, who want to reclaim their sister Helen
from her first husband Theseus. Theseus seeks refuge in Skyros, whose King
Lycomedes is an old friend and ally. Lycomedes, however, considers his visitor
a threat to the throne and proceeds to assassinate him.

1203
Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting
in single combat against Echemus

1203
Helen is abducted
by Paris.

1201
First Gathering at Aulis

1200
B.C. – Emergence of the Olmec culture.

1193
Second Gathering at Aulis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia.

1191
BC—Menestheus, King of
Athens,
dies during the Trojan War after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his
nephew Demophon, a son of Theseus.

1184
BC—April 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy.

Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe

Johann
Georg Trautmann (1713–1769): Blick auf das brennende Troja
Oil
on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. From the collections of the granddukes of Baden,
Karlsruhe

The
Trojan War was a war waged against the city of Troy
in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Greeks, after Paris
of Troy
stole Helen
from her husband Menelaus,
king of Sparta.

The
war sprang from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena,
Hera and Aphrodite,
after the goddess Eris (“Discord”)
gave them a golden apple with the inscription “to the fairest” (
known as the apple of Discord) at the wedding feast of Peleus
and Thetis. The goddesses went
to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite,
as the “fairest”, should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite
made Helen, the
most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris,
who took her to Troy.
Agamemnon, king of Mycenae,
and the brother of Menelaus,
led an expedition of Hellenic troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten
years. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Greeks Achilles
and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector
and Paris, the city fell
to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks mercilessly slaughtered the Trojans
and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods’ wrath. Few returned to
their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.

Jan
12 1183 The return and murder of Agamemnon


1183 BC – * Iron Age – During this age humans live an existence of
toil and miseryand the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: “there
will be no help against evil.”

1183-1173
The Odyssey

(A
massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC)

1183
Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus

1180
Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus

1179
Odysseus held captive by Calypso

1178
The suitors vie for Penelope

1175
Menelaus flees Egypt

(Ramses
III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC. Among those named are the Peleset,
Tjeker and Denyen, ie. the Pelasgians, Teukrians and Danaians who are said
to be based in Cyprus)

1175
The vengeance of Orestes against
Clytemnestra and Aegistheus

1175-1174
Orestes is pursued by the
Erinnyes

1173
Odysseus returns to Ithaca.
Hermes fathers Pan
by Penelope

1181
BC—Menestheus, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War,
dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by his nephew Demophon, a
son of Theseus.

1173
Orestes kills Aletes son of
Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends
his search for Iphigenia

1160
Odysseus is accidentally
killed by his son Telegonus

1158
Orestes is told by the Delphic
Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arkadia and is killed by a snake bite while
founding new cities.

1154
BC—Death of King Menelaus
of Sparta

1154
BC—Suicide of exiled Queen Helen
of Sparta
at Rhodes.

1153
Autesion expelled from Thebes after he defects to the Heraklids.

1153
The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on.

(Indications
of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC)

1153
The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes

1150
Demophon dies in Cyprus

1147
BC—Demophon King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after
a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes.

1135
BC—Oxyntes King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded
by his elder son Apheidas.

1134
BC—Apheidas King of Athens, is assassinated and succeeded by his younger
brother Thymoetes after a reign of 1 year.

1130
The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.

1130
Penthilus the son of Orestes
seizes Lesbos

1129
Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus
who becomes king of Athens.

1125
BC: Nebuchadnezzar I became king of Isin; he defeated Shutruk-Nahhunte and
united Babylonia under his rule.

1124
Tisamenus the son of Orestes
rules over Mycenae

1115
BC: Tiglath-pileser I became king of Assyria; he defeated Nebuchadnezzar and
reclaimed control of Babylonia, assuming it into the Assyrian Empire.

1113
The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus

1100
Brutus, grandson of Aeneas,
leads a group of Trojan exiles to Britain. High Kingship of Brutus, followed
by Locrinus, Gwendolen, Maddan, Mempricius, Ebraucus and Brutus Greenshield.

1103
The Heraklids defeat Tsiamneus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese.

(Indications
of invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1100 BC. Attack on Asia
Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC.)

1100
BC—Greek Dark Ages begin.

1089
BC—Melanthus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 37 years and is succeeded
by his son Codrus.

1068
BC — Codrus, King of Athens, dies in battle against Dorian invaders after
a reign of 21 years. Athenian tradition considers him the last King to have
held absolute power. Modern historians consider him the last King whose life
account is part of Greek mythology. He is succeeded by his son Medon.

1000
BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece

1000
BC—World population: 50,000,000

1000
– 900 BC Earliest hill-top earthworks (“hillforts”) begin to appear,
also fortified farmsteads; increasing sophistication of arts and crafts, particularly
in decorative personal and animal ornamentation.

1000
BC: groups of nomadic peoples, mostly the Aramaeans and Chaldeans, began raiding
Babylonia continuously; the Assyrians conquered began to conquer these groups
one by one.

863
BC Bath founded

814
– circa 760 BC Dido

800
BC rise of Etruscan civilization

776
Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games.

753
BC : Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus : Rome as a kingdom

753/715
BC : reign of Romulus

705
or 722 BC: Sennacherib became king of Assyria; he captured and destroyed Babylon,
tortured and beheaded prisoners, and enslaved women and children.

660
BC – Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule
as Emperor of Japan.


660 BC – Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland


626 BC: Naabopolassar, a Chaldean, proclaimed himself king of Babylonia and
established the Chaldean dynasty; he conquered the Assyrians with the help
of his allies, the Medes, the Scythians, and the Cimmerians.

620
BC – 560 BC Aesop, Greek Poet

616
BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus becomes king of Rome.

605
BC: Nebuchadnezzar II succeeded his father Naabopolassar as king of Babylonia;
he conquered all of Mesopotamia, defeated Egyptian invasions, destroyed Jerusalem (586 BC), and rebuilt the city of Babylon as his capital (including the hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the seven ancient wonders).

605 BC – King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.

600 BC: Foundation of Marseille by Phoceans

600 BC: India—Age of the Mahajanapadas—16 great kingdoms rule India—Kasi,
Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru,
Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja

594 BC: Solon appointed archon of Athens; institutes democratic reforms

556 BC: Nabonidus, one of Nebuchadnezzar II’s governors, became king of Babylonia; he angered the priestly class of Babylon and sent the empire into a state of civil wars.

551-479 Confucius

550 BC: Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica

539 BC: Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, conquered Babylonia; he added Babylonia
into the Persian Empire and ended the Chaldean Dynasty.

534/509 BC: reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king

509 BC Founding of Roman Republic, expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy

506 BC: Battle of Bai ju: Forces of the Kingdom of Wu under Sun Tzu defeat the
forces of Chu.

500 B.C. – Emergence of Maya civilization and Adena culture.

500 – 450 BC Odin is recognized as major god of Northern Mysteries replacing the
Mother Goddess

500- La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts, 15 BCE time of mythology)

499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack
on the rebellious island of Naxos.

499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia.

499 BC: Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.

495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.

492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the
leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign
that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades.

486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.

486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule.

480 BC Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 (popular culture mistakes it for being 300 Spartans but it was also 3000 other Greeks) so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians

450 BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.

431 BC Peloponnesian War

430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.

400 BC- Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece

400 BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.

399
BC: Socrates is executed in Athens on charges of impiety and corrupting Athenian
youth.

390
BC – Belinus and Brennus, kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army
and sack Rome

387
BC: Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome.

395
BC Corinthian War

340
BC Roman commanders are forbidden to settle warfare by single combat with
Celtic Chieftains.

336
Alexander the
Great
succeeds father, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis

335
BC Celts encounter Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, on the Danube.
They exchange pledges of alliance. Large numbers of Celtic warriors join the
Greeks in a war against the Etruscans.

334
BC – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins
of Troy before his siege of Persia.

333
Alexander the
Great
defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes

332
Alexander the
Great
conquers Egypt

331
at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander
the Great
ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire

330
BC: Alexander
the Great
conquers the Persian Empire, decline and depopulation of Ancient
Greece with large migrations towards the conquered lands.

330
Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and
necessity, nothing comes out of nothing

329
Alexander the
Great
conquers Samarkand

327
Alexander the
Great
invades Northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to
march further eastwards.

390
BC : Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls

312
BC: Seleucus I Nicator establishes himself in Babylon, founding the Seleucid
Empire.

285
BC Further Celtic hostilities against Rome; massacre on the River Tiber. High
Kingship in Britain of Beldgabred.

279
BC Celts invade Greece through Macedonia, temple of Delphi plundered.


264 BC First Punic War

299
BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard
plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul
and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.

298
BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus
in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.

293
BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the
State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.

281
BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes
emperor of the Seleucid empire.

280
BC: Construction of the Colossus of
Rhodes
is completed

279
BCE Celts invaded Greece

275
BC: End of history of Babylon.

270
BCE Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).


264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the
Roman Republic.

261
BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor
of the Seleucid empire.

260
BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in
China; a decisive Qin victory.

241
BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations,
and annexes Sicily and Corsica.


227 BC: The assassination against Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke
from Yan failed.

225
BC: 225 BC Battle of Telemon; Celts advance on Rome again. Roman army routs
invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy, all Celtic tribes south
of River Po destroyed. From the major Celtic loss at the Battle of Telamon,
Celtic lands come under pressure from the Germanic tribes to the north, and
the spread of Rome. Gallia Cisalpina and southern Gaul are conquered; the
Iberian Peninsula falls by degrees. High Kingship in Britain of Redon.

225
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.

223
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.

222
BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.

221
BC: With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of
China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin
Dynasty.

218 BC: Second Punic War begins. Hannibal with Celtic mercenaries makes his
famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy , the Roman heartland.

216
BC: Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae.

214
BC: Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great
Wall of China.

202
BC Hannibal defeated at Zama by Scipio; extensive Romanization of Celtic tribes
begins.

200
BCE The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands,
Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.

168
BC: Battle of Pydna—The Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans.

149
BC Third Punic War

148
BC: Rome conquers Macedonia.

146
BC: Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage in the Third Punic War.


146 BC Battle of Corinth

110
BC High Kingship in Britain of Beli Mawr the Great, who married Don, daughter
of Math. They have one daughter, Penarddun who will later marry Llyr. Other
children are Amathaon, Nudd, Govannon, Aranrhod, Gilvaethwy and Gwydion. Beli
Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of
Dyfed. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of
Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who
is claimed as the founder of Gwent.

107
BC: Roman consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, which remove all
ownership restrictions for joining the Roman Army.

100
BC Glass blowing is invented in Roman Syria, Sunspots, first recorded by Chinese,

82
BCE Rome defeats Celts in Italy.

73
BC: A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the
Third Servile War.

68
BC – Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to
Rome.

67
BC– Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates

55
BCE Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.

52
BCE Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.

31 BC Battle of Actium

31
BC January 10, 49 BC: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, precipitating
war with Rome.

44
BC– Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March

31
BC: Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium—Off the western coast of Greece,
forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

27
BC: The Roman Senate votes Octavian the title of Augustus. Augustus eventually
assumes all authority formerly held by the Roman senate becoming the first
emperor. The Roman state is henceforth known as the Roman Empire, and the
period from 27 BC to AD 305 as the Principate.

12
BC The death of Cúchulainn
marked the end of the Red Branch Knights dominance. As a boy he killed a fierce
hound belonging to a man called Culann. The hound was said to be as big as
a horse and it took three chains and three men on each chain to hold him.

00
– Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire

9
Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany

14–
Death of Pan

14–
Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor

25–
Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir

26–
Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy

37–
Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor

41–
Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor

43–
Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain

43-409
CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.

47
London founded

54–
Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes
emperor


60– The Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the
power of the Celtic druids, attacked Anglesey, destroying the shrine and the
sacred groves. News of Boudica’s revolt reached him just after his victory,
causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest. Remaining
druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland

60/61–
Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.

64–
Great Fire of Rome

79
Pompeii destroyed

Karl Briullov (1799–1852) The Last Day of Pompeii.

Karl Briullov (1799–1852) The Last Day
of Pompeii.

80-448 Goidelic High Kings

100-
End of 1st century – codex replaces the scroll.

105
– Cai Lun of China invents paper

122–
construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins

125:
Zhang Heng of China invents the world’s first water-powered armillary sphere

132:
Zhang Heng of China invents first seismometer to detect the cardinal direction
of earthquakes

168
– Ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye. He also
compiles three of the most influential books in western history:

The
Almagest which becomes the basis for western and Middle Eastern astronomy
until the time of Copernicus and Kepler; The astrological treatise, Tetrabiblos;
and the Geographia

200
– Inventions, discoveries, introductions


A primitive form of eyeglasses were developed for a nearsighted princess in
Syria.

The
South Pointing Chariot invented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that
acts as a directional compass

An
early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling, known as the Kongming
lantern was said to be invented by Zhuge Liang.

The
repeating crossbow or semi-automatic crossbow is an improved version of a
model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is
debate whether the original Warring States Period bow was semi-automatic,
or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge’s version could
shoot farther and faster.

Some
sources report that Zhuge Liang invented a primitive land mine type device.

A
mysterious but efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for
grain) referred to as the “wooden ox and flowing horse” also invented
by Zhuge, which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow.

208:
the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs.

212:
Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men.

220:
The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in
ancient China.

265:
The Jin Dynasty reunites China under one empire after the conquest of Eastern
Wu.

300
Under the Roman Empire, punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State
against witches who brought about another person’s death through their enchantments.

306
AD Council of Elvira refuses last rites to those who had killed a man by a
magical spell because such a crime could not be effected “without idolatry”
(i.e. the help of Devils and Demons).

313
Conversion of Emperor Constantine.

314
The Council of Ancyra imposes five years of penance upon those who consult
magicians. Here, the offence lies in participation in paganism.

350
AC The Fenian Cycle these tales revolve around the Fianna, a group of warriors
famous for their bravery and skill in battle. They operated in groups of six
warriors and were only accepted to the clan after they had undergone strenuous
tests to determine their abilities. Finn MacCunaill is the central character
during this cycle. One of the most famous tales from this period is about
how he acquired his great knowledge. A druid who was one of Finn’s teachers
caught a fish in the River Boyne that was notable because whoever ate this
salmon would know everything that happened in Ireland. After the druid caught
the fish, Finn prepared it for him but he burned himself while cooking the
fish. Finn licked his wound and immediately gained Wisdom and second sight.
With this power, he supposedly foretold the coming of the Danes.

370
Huns invade Eastern Europe

378
– Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans fey worship

383
Priscillian of Avila was executed by burning for witchcraft.

395:
Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, causing the Roman Empire to split permanently.


395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location
at Salisbury.


390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants
of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of
Britain and takes the throne for himself.

400
AD – King Gunther of Burgundy takes over land down river on the Rhine
and meets Siegfried, son of King Sigmund.
Siegfried helps Gunther win the hand of
Brynhild.

406
Visigoths, Suevi and Burgundians cross the Rhine and invade Roman Gaul. Beginning
of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

410
— Visigoths under Alaric I sack Rome

451
Attila the Hun is repelled from Gaul by Roman–Barbarian forces at the
Battle of Châlons.

455
The Vandals pillage Rome.

476
The last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, is deposed by Odovacar,
conventionally ending the Western Roman Empire.

500
Irish colonists
and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland).
Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany.

515
Battle of Mons Badonicus. The West Saxon advance is halted by King
Arthur
.

522:
Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation

529—534
Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal
writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.

537:
The Grail is found by Sir Galahad

537:
Battle of Camlann, final battle of King
Arthur
.

537:
The realm of Camelot disappears with Arthur to Avalon (Fey Wild) and continues
once he has healed.

541-542:
First pandemic of Bubonic
Plague
(Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople
and the rest of Byzantine Empire.

Significant
persons

Taliesin,
Welsh poet

600
– Events

The
world’s population shrinks to about 208 million people.

600
AD Beowulf, king of the Geats
slays
Grendel

600:
Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.

613
AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern
Gaul.

650,
The first Chinese Paper money is issued.

670s,
Greek fire invented in Constantinople.

786
AD – Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan
of Persia.

768–814
— Charlemagne

772
– 804: Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling
the Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion,
incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire.

785
The Council of Paderborn rules that sorcerers are to be reduced to serfdom
and made over to the service of the Church.

793:
The first written account of a Viking raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne
in northern England.

794
– Vikings attacks the monastery at Yarrow, but fails.

795:
Vikings run assaults on monasteries in Scotland and approach the Irish sea
and attacks on Ireland starts.

797
– Vikings attacks Lambay, Ireland.

798
– Vikings attacks on France begin.

799:
St. Philibert Monastery (France) sacked

800:
Norwegians settle Faroe Islands

800
Gunpowder in Ancient China: Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic
consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for
an elixir of immortality.

800
– Skiringsal and Birka trade centers are founded.

802
– Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas on the isle Iona of
the Hebrides.

805
– Vikings attacks the monastery at the holly Columbas for the second time.

810:
Danes under King Godfred attack Frisia

814:
Charlemagne dies

820
– Vikings conquers the Isle of Man and establishes permanently.

820
– Vikings attacks Flanders and approches the moth of river Seine.

834
– Vikings approaches the river Thames, England.

834:
Danes attack Dorestad, now in the Netherlands

841:
Norwegians over winter in Ireland

839
– Turgeis (Torgisl) and a big Viking fleet conquers Ireland and settles permanently.

841
– Vikings under the leadership of Turgeis founds Dublin, Ireland.

841 – Vikings burns Lillebonne, Caudebec and Rouen and destroys the abbeys of
Jumieges and St Wandrille.

843 – Vikings of Vestfold establishes a power base at the isle Noirmountier (Loire)
and raids Nates.

844 – A Viking raid on Seville is repulsed.

844 – Turgeis is killed by the Irish, drowned in Loch Nair.

845 – Viking chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok attacks Paris along a big fleet.

850: Longphorts established in Ireland

850: Danes spend first winter in England

852: Danes spend first winter in Frankia

853 – Olaf the White conquers Ireland along a big Viking fleet.

853: Norwegian Olaf the White established as king at Dublin

857 – Vikings raids Paris again.

858 – Vikings captures the abbot of St Denis and claims ransome.

859 – Vikings raids in the Mediterranean for the first time.

860 – Rus (Sweds) Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

861-
The third big attack on Paris by Vikings.

862
– Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.

863
– Xanten demolished by Vikings.

865:
Danish Great Army arrives in East Anglia

866:
Norwegian Harald Finehair subjugates Scottish Isles

866
– Danish Vikings establishes the kingdom of York, England.

870
– Harold Luva (Fairhair) starts his effort to gain full control in Norway.

870:
Danes rule over one half of England

871
– Olaf the White returns to Norway, his brother Ivarr becoms ruler of Ireland.

871–899
Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, Viking advance is halted in England.
Later he becomes the first king of a united England and formed new laws and
fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.

873:
Ingolf Arnason founds Reykjavik, Iceland

874
– Ivarr the Boneless dies, his sons continues attacks on north-eastern England.

879
– Rurik establishes Kiev as power center of the Kievan Rus’ domains.

880s:
Norwegian Sigurd the Mighty moves into the Scottish mainland

885
– A huge fleet of Viking ships attacks Paris, but fails in conquering the
city.

885
– Harald (Luva) Fairhair finally unites Norway as one kingdom, first in Scandinavia.

886
– Alfred and the Danes splits England under the Danelaw pact.

891
– The Vikings at Noirmountier (France) is finally beaten.

894
– Turf-Einar, son of Rognwald and half brother of Rollo, becomes earl of Orkney.

900
– Vikings raids in the Mediterranean again.

902
– The Irish regain Dublin from the Vikings, and rule for fifteen years.

906
Canon Eposcopi, a collection of church laws, appeared. It declared that belief
in witchcraft was heretical.

911
– The Viking chieftain Rollo is granted land by the Frankish king and founds
the Duchy of Normandy.

917
– Vikings defeats Dublin by military power and regains the throne.

928
– Kings Æthelstan and Harald Fairhair joins in a treaty to gain control
of the Norse Vikings.

930
– The first democracy (Alltinget) of the world is founded at Thingvellir,
Iceland, by Vikings.

940
– Harald Fairhair dies and his son Eirik Blood-axe struggle to gain full control
of Norway, but fails.

941
– Rus Vikings attacks Constantinople (Istanbul).

947
– Eirik Blood-axe, son of Fairhair, gains control of York.

949
– Olaf Crovan defeats Eirik Blood-axe, who flees.

950
– Eirik Blood-axe regains control of York.

954
– Eirik Blood-axe killed at the Battle of Stainmore in York, Vikings defeated
by King Edmund.

957
– King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.

974
– Emperor Otto II of Germany attacks Denmark, but fails because of Norwegian
help.

976
– Maccus Haraldsson, first known king of Man, dies, his brother Gudrød
approaches throne.

976
– Angelsey (coast of Wales) is included to the Norse kingdom of Man.

980
– Vikings starts regular attacks to gain control of England.

984
– Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland and starts settling.

985
– The Jomsvikings attacks Norway, lead by Earl Sigvalde, but is firmly defeated
at Hjørungavåg.

985:
Norse farmers led by Erik the Red build a series of small settlements along
Greenland and western North America

986
– Viking ships sails in Newfoundland waters.

991
– Viking chieftain Olaf Tryggvasson, along 93 ships, defeats Byrhtnoth at
Maldon (August).

991
– Æthelred II pays, the first Danegeld ransom, off £ 10,000 in
silver to stop Viking attck on London.

994
– Æthelred II pays off £16,000 in silver to stop Viking attcks
on London.

995
– Olaf Tryggvasson conquers Norway and proclaims a Christian kingdom.

999
– Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland by powers of Olaf Tryggvasson.

1000
High Middle Ages

1000
– Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.

1000
– Olaf Tryggvasson dies in the Battle of Svolder (coast of Vendland); Norway
ruled by Danes.

1000
AD – By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.

1002
– Brian Boru defeats the Norse Vikings and becomes king of all Ireland.

1009
– Viking chieftain Olaf Haraldsson (St. Olav) attacks London by river and
destroys London Bridge.

1010
– Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North
America.

1013
– Danes, helped by Olaf Haraldson, conquers England; Æthelred flees
to Normandy.

1014
– The Vikings of Ireland are finally defeated in the Battle of Clontarf, but
Brian Boru is killed.

1015
– Vikings abandons the Vinland settlements at the coast of North America.

1016
– Olaf Haraldsson regains Norway from the Danes.

1016
– Danes, under Canute the Great, gains full control over England. Cnut named
king of England, Denmark and Norway

1018
– The coronation of Canute the Great, as King of England.

1022
Seemingly pious and ascetic mystics were burned as witches in Orleans. They
were in fact Devil worshippers who indulged in sex orgies and the murder of
children.

1026
– Kings Anund Jakob (Sweden) and Olaf Haraldsson (Norway) attacks Denmark,
but fails.

1028
– Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway and Olaf flees.

1030
– Olaf Haraldsson returns to regain Norway, but is killed at Stiklestad.

1035
– Canute the Great dies, Magnus, son of St Olaf, expels the Danes from Norway
and regains the kingdom.

1042
– Edward the Confessor rules England, supported by Danes.

1042
– Magnus, king of Norway, becomes king of Denmark.

1045
– Magnus grants Harald Hardraada half of Norway, as a co-king.

1047
– Magnus, king of Norway & Denmark, dies; Hardraada sovereign king of
Norway; Claims Denmark as well.

1047
– Svend Estridsson gains control of the Danish throne, but Hardraada won’t
give up his claim.

1049
– Hardraada founds Oslo, Norway.

1050
– Hardraade raids Haithabu.

1062
– Hardraada defeats Svend Estridsson at the Battle of Nissen, but fails to
gain control of Denmark.

1064
– Hardraada gives up Denmark and recognizes Svend Estridsson as legal heir
to the throne.

1066
– Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada, who dies in the Battle of Stamford
Bridge (Sep 25th).

1066
William, Duke of Normandy, invades England and defeats Saxon king Harold in
the Battle of Hastings (Oct 14th). End of Anglosaxon rule in England and start
of Norman lineage

1072
– Vikings conquers Palermo.

1080
Pope Gregory VII writes a letter to King Harold of Denmark forbidding witches
to be put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms, failure
of crops or pestilence.

1085
– Danish Vikings makes a final attempt to conquer England but fails.

1086
The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned
by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first
such undertaking since Roman times.

1096-1099
— First Crusade

Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date (1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot's Les Passages d'Outremer.

Medieval miniature painting of the Siege of Antioch Date
(1490) engraving by Jean Colombe from Sébastien Mamerot’s Les Passages
d’Outremer.

1100
AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.

1102
Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London

1141
Hugh of St. Victor wrote Didascalicon, which included a strong denunciation
of using or studying magic:


Magic was not accepted as part of philosophy, but stands with a false claim
outside it; the mistress of every form of iniquity and malice, lying about
the truth and truly infecting men’s minds, it seduces them from divine religion,
prompts them from the cult of demons, fosters corruption of morals, and impels
the minds of its devotees to every wicked and criminal indulgence. … sorcerers
were those who, with demonic incantations or amulets or any other execrable
types of remedies, by the cooperation of the devils or by evil instinct, perform
wicked things.

1145-1149
— Second Crusade

1147
— Wendish Crusade

1150
— University of Paris founded

1155-1190
— Frederick I Barbarossa

1158
— foundation of the Hanseatic League

1160–
Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood

1167
— University of Oxford founded

1185
— reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire

1189-1192
— Third Crusade

1193
The first known merchant guild.

1200.
Slavery virtually disappears in Japan; it was never widespread and mostly
involved captives taken in civil wars.

1200–1204
— Fourth Crusade

1205
— battle of Adrianople

1206
Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Orcs and the Orc Empire was
established. The Orcs would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political
borders.

1209
— University of Cambridge founded

1209-1229
— Albigensian Crusade

1215
The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first
times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.

1217–1221
— Fifth Crusade

1220-1250
— Frederick II

1222
— University of Padua founded

1223 Battle of the Kalka River

1225
In Germany, the secular law code “Sachsenspiegel” designated death
by fire as the proper punishment for witchcraft.

1228–1229
— Sixth Crusade

1231
Conrad of Marburg was appointed as the first Inquisitor of Germany, setting
a pattern of persecution. In his reign of terror, he claimed to have uncovered
many nests of “Devil worshippers” and adopted the motto of:


We would gladly burn a hundred if just one of them was guilty.

1233
Pope Gregory IX proclaimed Conrad of Marburg a champion of Christendom and
promoted his findings in the Papal Bull Vox in Rama.

1237–1242
Orc invasion of Rus’

1241-1242
— Orc invasion of Europe

1241
— Battle of Legnica

1248–1254
— Seventh Crusade

1252
Nevruy’s horde devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal.

1257
— foundation of the Collège de Sorbonne

1258
Pope Alexander IV instructs, “The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate
heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without
knowledge of manifest heresy involved.” “Manifest heresy” is
defined as: “praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to
consult demons, to elicit responses from them… or associate themselves publicly
with heretics.”

1258/1259
Orc attacks against Danylo of Halych, led by Burundai.

1261
— the Byzantine Empire reconquers Constantinople.

1273
Orc twice attacked Novgorod territory, devastating Vologda and Bezhitsa.

1274
Orcs devastated Smolensk.

1275
Orc invasion of south-eastern Rus’, Kursk pillaged.

1275
The first “witch” is burned to death after judicial sentence of
an inquisitor, in Toulouse, France. Her name was Hugues de Baniol and she
“confessed” to having given birth to a monster after intercourse
with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies’ flesh which she
procured in her nocturnal expeditions.

1278
Orcs pillaged the Ryazan Principality.

1280
First appearances of witchs riding brooms.

1280
— death of Albertus Magnus

1281
The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday sacked Murom and Pereslavl-Zalessky, ruined
vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev-Polsky, Tver and Torzhok.
1282 Orcs attacked Vladimir and Pereslavl-Zalessky.

1282:
Mechanization of papermaking (paper mill)

1282
– Llywellyn, the Last, one of the last remaining original Celts was executed
for treason by Edward Longshanks.

1283
Orcs sacked Vorgolsk, Rylsk, and Lipetsk, overrunning Kursk and Vorgol.
1285 The Orc warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom.

1291
— Acre, the last European outpost in the Middle East, is captured by
the Mamluks under Khalil.

1293
The Orc warlord Dyuden came to Rus and pillaged fourteen towns, including
Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Pereslavl-Zalessky,
Mozhaysk, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and Uglitch. During the same summer Takhtamir
looted the Tver principality and took slaves in the Vladimir principality.

1295
Marco Polo publishes his tales of China. A key step to the bridging of East
and West

1297
William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.

1299
— Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire.

1300-30
Beginning of the witch trials in Europe.

1307
Tatars pillaged the Ryazan principality.

1315
Tatars pillaged Torzhok in the Novgorod principality as well as Rostov

1317
Tatars devastated the Tver principality

1318
Tatars sacked Kostroma and Rostov

1315
Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that “France”
signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should
be freed

1320
Pope John XXII authorized the Inquisition to began persecuting sorcery and
witchcraft.

1321
— death of Dante Alighieri

1322
Tatars devastated Yaroslavl

1324
– 1325 Lady Alice Kyteler, her son and associates in Kilkenny, Ireland, were
tried for witchcraft. For the first time, stories of mating with demons were
linked with stories of pacts with Satan. Lady Alice escaped to England, but
others were burned.

1327
The Golden Horde organised a punitive expedition to the Tver principality

1334
Large-scale witch trial in Toulouse, France, in which 63 persons were accused.
Of these, eight were handed over to the state to be burned and the rest were
imprisoned.

1335
Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.

1337
to 1453 The Hundred Years’ War. England and France struggle for dominance
of Western Europe.

Hundred Years' War montage

Hundred Years’ War montage

Montage of paintings representing key battles
of the Hundred Years’ War. Clockwise, from top left: Crécy, La Rochelle,
Agincourt, Orléans.

1337,
November
Battle
of Cadsand: initiates hostilities. The Flemish defenders of the island
were thrown into disorder by the first use of the English longbow on
Continental soil.

1340,
June 24

Battle
of Sluys: Edward III destroys the Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI
of France off the coast of Flanders ensuring England will not be invaded
and that the majority of the war will be fought in France.

1345,
October 21

Battle
of Auberoche: a longbow victory by Henry, Earl of Derby against a French
army at Auberoche in Gascony.

1346,
August 26

Battle
of Crécy: English longbowmen soundly defeat French cavalry near
the river Somme in Picardy. The dead included King John of Bohemia,
Duke of Lorraine, the Count of Flanders, the Count of Alençon,
the Count of Blois, the Viscount Rohan, the Lord of Laval, the Lord
of Chateaubriant, the Lord of Dinan, the Lord of Redon, 1,542 knights,
2,300 Genoese and 10,000 infantry.

1346,
September 4–1347, August 3

Siege
of Calais: Calais falls under English control.

1350,
August 29

Les
Espagnols sur Mer: English fleet defeats Castilian fleet in a close
fight.

1351,
March 26

Combat
of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir
call out and defeat thirty English and pro-English Breton knights under
Pembroke and Sir Robert Bramborough, Bramborough was killed.

1351

French
army under De Nesle defeated by English under Bentley at Mauron in Brittany,
De Nesle killed.

1356,
September 19

Battle
of Poitiers: Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France,
France plunged into chaos. Casualties on the French side were 2,500
killed or wounded, 2,000 captured, John II, 17 lords, 13 counts, 5 viscounts
and over 100 knights.

1364,
September 29

Battle
of Auray: End of Breton War of Succession. Charles of Blois, Duke of
Brittany was killed; the Count of Auxerre and Bertrand Du Guesclin were
captured.

1367,
April 3

Battle
of Nájera: the Black Prince defeats a Castilian/French army at
Nájera in Castile.

1370,
December 3

Battle
of Pontvallain: Bertrand du Guesclin routs an English raiding army,
ending the English reputation for invincibility in open battle.

1372,
June 22

Battle
of La Rochelle: Castilian-French fleet defeats the English fleet, leading
to loss of dominance at sea and French piracy and coastal raids. John
of Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, was captured along with 400 knights and
8,000 soldiers.

1374-1380

Castilian
fleet commanded by Fernando Sánchez de Tovar sacks and burns
English Channel ports, and Gravesend on the Thames.

1385

Battle
of Aljubarrota: Nuno Álvares Pereira, commanding a small Portuguese-English
army, defeats the Castilian-French forces in Portugal.

1385

Jean
de Vienne, having successfully strengthened the French naval situation,
lands an army in Scotland, but is forced to retreat.

1415,
October 25

Battle
of Agincourt: English longbowmen under Henry V defeat the French under
Charles d’Albret. Captured French nobles included Marshal of France
Jean Le Maingre, Charles, Duke of Orléans, John I, Duke of Bourbon
and Louis, Count of Vendôme. Killed on the French side were Antoine
of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Philip of Burgundy, Count
of Nevers and Rethel, Charles I d’Albret, Count of Dreux, the Constable
of France; John II, Count of Bethune, John I, Duke of Alençon,
Frederick of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont, Robert, Count of Marles and
Soissons, Edward III of Bar (the Duchy of Bar lost its independence
as a consequence of his death) and John VI, Count of Roucy, Jean I de
Croÿ and two of his sons, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny,
Jan I van Brederode, George Edward Stewart III, and the (Scottish) Lord
of Shetland. Other noble prisoners totalling about 1,500 were taken.
Overall, between 7,000 and 10,000 French were killed. On the English
side, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and Michael de la Pole, 3rd
Earl of Suffolk were killed, among at least 112 dead and an unknown
number of wounded.

1416

English
defeat numerically greater French army at Valmont near Harfleur.

1417

English
naval victory in the River Seine under Bedford.

1418,
July 31–1419, January 19

Siege
of Rouen: Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.

1419

Battle
of La Rochelle: Franco-Castilian fleet defeats Anglo-Hanseatic fleet.

1421,
March 22

Battle
of Bauge: The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII, commanded by
the Earl of Buchan, defeat an outmanoeuvred English force commanded
by the Duke of Clarence. English nobles captured included John Beaufort,
3rd Earl of Somerset, Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, John Holland,
2nd Duke of Exeter and Lord Fitz Walter. Killed were Thomas of Lancaster,
1st Duke of Clarence, John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville, John de Ros,
8th Baron de Ros and Sir Gilbert de Umfraville.

1423,
July 31

Battle
of Cravant: The Franco-Scottish army is defeated at Cravant on the banks
of the river Yonne. On the French/Scottish side, 6,000 were killed and
2,000 captured, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Louis,
Count of Vendôme.

1424,
August 17

Battle
of Vernuil: The Franco-Scottish forces are decisively defeated, losing
4,000 dead, including John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Archibald
Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas

1426,
March 6

French
besieging army under Arthur de Richemont dispersed by a small force
under Sir Thomas Rempstone in “The Rout of St James” in Brittany.
1428,
October 12–1429, May 8
Siege
of Orléans: English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury,
the Earl of Suffolk, and Talbot (Earl of Shrewsbury) lay siege to Orleans,
and are forced to withdraw after a relief army accompanied by Joan of
Arc arrives at the city.

1429,
February 12

Battle
of the Herrings: English force under Sir John Fastolf defeats French
and Scottish armies.

1429,
July 17

Battle
of Patay: In a reverse of Agincourt/Crécy, a French army under
La Hire, Richemont, Joan of Arc, and other commanders break through
English archers under Lord Talbot and then pursue and mop up the other
sections of the English army, killing or capturing about half (2,200)
of their troops. John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Walter, Lord
Hungerford are captured.

1429

Joan
of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred
Years’ War
1431
Trial
of Joan of Arc took place and included allegations of witchcraft.

1435

Battle
of Gerbevoy: La Hire defeats an English force under Arundel.

1435

French
forces take Paris.

1450,
April 15

Battle
of Formigny: A French force under the Comte de Clermont defeats an English
force under Thomas Kyriell.

1451

French
forces conquer Gascony.

1453,
July 17

Battle
of Castillon: Jean Bureau defeats Talbot to end the Hundred Years’ War.
This was also the first battle in European history where the use of
cannon was a major factor in determining the outcome. John Talbot, 1st
Earl of Shrewsbury was killed in battle.

1347 The
Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20%
– 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.

 

1347
The University of Prague is founded.

1358,
1365, 1373 Tatars sacked the Ryazan principality

1361
The fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued
to rule Orcia. The breakup of the Orc Empire, which marked the end of
Pax Orcica.

1374
Pope Gregory XI declares that all magic is done with the aid of Devils
and Demons and thus is open to prosecution
for heresy.

1375
Tatars attacked the southeastern suburb of Nizhniy Novgorod

1377
and 1378 Tatars attacked the Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan principalities

1380
Dmitri Donskoi defeated Tatars at Battle of Kulikovo

1381
Peasants’ Revolt in England.

1382
Khan Tokhtamysh burns down Moscow, tens of thousands of its citizens died

1391
Tatars attacked Vyatka

1398
The theology faculty at the University of Paris declared that all forms of
magic or divination involved some sort of pact with the devil and were thus
heresy, justifying the persecution of every possible sort of witchcraft.

1399
Tatars attacked Nizhniy Novgorod

1400
Peter de Gruyères, a secular judge, carries out large-scale witch trials
in Bern, Switzerland.

1403:
The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish
Empire.

1408
Tatars sacked Serpukhov, as well as the vicinities of Moscow, Pereyaslavl,
Rostov, Yuriev, Dmitrov, Nizhni Novgorod and Galich

1410
Tatars ruined Vladimir

1410:
The Battle of Grunwald was the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic
War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights.

1415
Tatars devastated Elets

1420:
Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.

1425:
Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope Martin V.

1428
Witch trials of Brianqon took place in the Dauphine. About 167 local people
were burned as witches between 1428 and 1450.

1429
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich and Kostroma

1431
January 1– August 1503 Pope Alexander VI (Roderic Borgia)

1435-50
Number of witch trails rises sharply.

1439:
Printing press

1439
Tatar incursions into the vicinities of Moscow and Kolomna

1440
Notorious trial of Gilles de Rais, who was accused of witchcraft and debaucheries.

1441:
Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave
trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.

1443
Tatars looted the outskirts of Ryazan, but were repelled from the city proper

1445
Tatars attacked Nizhni Novgorod and Suzdal

1449,
1451, 1455, 1459 Tatars looted the outskirts of Moscow

1450s:
Machu Picchu constructed.

1453:
The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death
of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI and the beginning of the Growth of
the Ottoman Empire.

1455–1485:
Wars of the Roses – English civil war between the House of York and the
House of Lancaster.

1456
– 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula

1467–1615:
The Sengoku period is one of civil war in Japan.

1468
Tatars looted the vicinities of Galich

1470
March 12 – Wars of the Roses – Battle of Lose-coat Field: The House
of York defeats the House of Lancaster.

October
– A rebellion orchestrated by King Edward’s former ally, the Earl of
Warwick, forces the King to flee England to seek support from his brother-in-law
Charles the Bold of Burgundy.

October
30 – Warwick releases Henry VI of England from the Tower and restores
him to the throne.

1472
Leonardo da Vinci is listed as a master in Florence’s “Company of Artists”.

1472
Tatars plundered Aleksin

1473
February 19– 24 May 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus

1475
September 13 – 12 March 1507 Cesare Borgia

1480
April 18 – 24 June 1519 Lucrezia Borgia

1480
The Great stand on the Ugra river marks the end of the Tatar-Orc yoke in
Russia

1480–1540
Dr Johann Georg Faust


1481: Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé.

1484
Pope Innocent VIII publishes the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring
with the Greatest Ardor”) condemning witchcraft as the worst of all possible
heresies. The bull also officially grants Heinrich Krämer and James Sprenger,
Dominican inquisitors, the right to prosecute persons of any class or any
form of crime.

1485:
Henry VII defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes King of
England

1486
Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger publish Malleus maleficarum (“The
Hammer of Witches”), a learned but misogynistic book blaming witchcraft
chiefly on women. It was reprinted many times thanks to the newly-invented
printing press and was a major influence on the witch-hunt hysteria of the
next two centuries. It was regarded as the standard handbook on witchcraft
until well into the 18th century.

In
their opinion, witchcraft was based upon sexual lust:


All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which was in women insatiable.

In
an interesting twist, it was now declared that not believing in witches was
heresy:


A belief that there were such things as witches was so essential a part of
Catholic faith that obstinately to maintain the opposite opinion savours of
heresy.

1488
Papal Bull was issued, calling upon European nations to rescue the church
because it was “imperiled by the arts of Asmodeus.”

1490
King Charles VIII issued an edict against fortunetellers, enchanters, necromancers
and others engaging in any sort of witchcraft.

1492,
October 12 – Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.

1492:
Jews expelled from Spain.

1494
Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the
World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin. Italian
Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope’s
ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as
the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India
and Africa.

1500
Late Middle Ages

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria dell' Accademia, Venice (1485-90)

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, Galleria
dell’ Accademia, Venice (1485-90)

The
Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science. European
civilization began to change beginning in 1500, leading to the scientific
and industrial revolutions. That continent began to exert political and cultural
dominance over human societies around the planet.

1501
October 30 – The Banquet of Chestnuts is held by Cesare Borgia in the
Papal Palace of Rome.

1507
Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) The Mona Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda).

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) The Mona
Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda).

1508
Mass witch trials in Biarn occurred.

1509
England – Henry VIII crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon.

1529
Inquisitorial witchcraft trials took place at Luxeuil.

1530s
Prosecutions for witchcraft begin in Mexico.

1532
The penal code Carolina decrees that sorcery throughout the German empire
should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it injured any person, the
penalties of torture and death for the witch was to be burned at the stake.

1542
Henry VIII issued a statute against witchcraft.

1547
Repeal of statute of 1542 during the reign of Edward VI.

1557
Toulouse witch trials took place, during which forty witches were condemned
and burned.

1558
England – Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne

La reine Élisabeth Ire d'Angleterre dans sa robe de couronnement, à motifs de roses de Tudor et ourlée d'hermine. Ses cheveux sont libres sur ses épaules, comme de tradition pour le couronnement des reines, et peut être aussi comme symbole de virginité. La peinture, d'un auteur inconnu, date de la première décennie du XVIIe siècle. C'est une copie d'un original lui aussi d'auteur inconnu, et perdu.

La reine Élisabeth Ire d’Angleterre
dans sa robe de couronnement, à motifs de roses de Tudor et ourlée
d’hermine. Ses cheveux sont libres sur ses épaules, comme de tradition
pour le couronnement des reines, et peut être aussi comme symbole de
virginité. La peinture, d’un auteur inconnu, date de la première
décennie du XVIIe siècle. C’est une copie d’un original lui
aussi d’auteur inconnu, et perdu.

1563
Queen Elizabeth issued a statute against witchcraft.

Johan
Weyer wrote De Praestigiis Daemonum. This book described his belief that witches
were just mentally disturbed old women and that it was the belief in witches
which was caused by Asmodeus.
He was forced to leave the Netherlands and his book was denounced by Jean
Bodin.

1563
Council of Trent resolved to win back Germany from Protestantism to the Catholic
Church; intensification of religious struggles and persecutions results.

1566
The first Chelmsford witch trials. This trial was the first to appear in a
secular court in England and resulted in the first woman being hanged for
witchcraft, Agnes Waterhouse. This trial also produced the first chapbook,
or tabloid newspaper, relating to witchcraft.

1572
The Protestant ruler of Saxony imposes the penalty of burning for witchcraft
of every kind, including fortune-telling.

1579
The Windsor witch trials; also the second Chelmsford trials.

1580
Jean Bodin, a French judge, published Daemonomanie des Sorciers condemning
witches. According to Bodin, those denying the existence of witches were actually
witches themselves.

1580-1630
Period in which witch-hunts are most severe.

1582
St. Osyth Witches of Essex (case tried at Chelmsford).

1584
Miyamoto Musashi is born.

1589
England – Third Chelmsford witch trials.

1589
France- Fourteen convicted witches at Tours appealed to King Henry III, who
was in turn accused of protecting witches.

1590
William V began a witch hunt in Bavaria.

1590-91
Scotland – The North Berwick witch trials began when an alleged coven of witches
was exposed, resulting in Scotland’s most celebrated witch trials and executions.
King James VI (who became James I of England), a devout believer in witches,
even took part in the proceedings. The torture applied to the victims was
among the most brutal in Scotland’s entire history of witchcraft prosecution.

1592
Father Cornelius Loos wrote of those arrested and accused of witchcraft:


Wretched creatures were compelled by the severity of the torture to confess
things they have never done… and so by the cruel butchery innocent lives
were taken; and, by a new alchemy, gold and silver are coined from human blood.

1593
Warboys witches of Huntingdon were put on trial.

1597
Publication of Demonology by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England).

1604
England – James I released his statute against witchcraft, in which he wrote
that they were “loathe to confess without torture.”

1605:
Newspaper invented

1609
In response to a witch panic in the Basque region, La Suprema (the ruling
body of the Spanish Inquisition) issues an “Edict of Silence” forbidding
all discussion of witchcraft. For, as one inquisitor noted, “There were
neither witches nor bewitched until they were talked and written about.”

1612
England – Lancashire witch trials.

1614
August – The trial of Elizabeth
Bathory
, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls.

1618
Start of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) during which the witch hunt throughout
Germany was at its height.

1620
Case of the Bilson Boy (William Perry).

1625
Start of general decline of witch trials in France.

1628
Trial of Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, for witchcraft.

1631
Publication of Cautio Criminalis by Friedrich von Spee, opposing the witch
hunt.

1632
Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg marked the end of the persecutions in
this principality (1609-1632).

1645
Case of the Faversham witches, Kent Witchfinder-general Matthew Hopkins and
the Chelmsford (or Manningtree) witch trials.

1646
Death of Matthew Hopkins from tuberculosis.

1647
Publication of Discovery of Witches by Matthew Hopkins.

1647 First hanging for witchcraft in New England.

1649 Case of the St. Albans witches, Hertfordshire.

1652 “Dr. Lamb’s Darling”: the trial of Anne Bodenham and the trial of the Wapping Witch (Joan Peterson) near London.

1662 The Bury St. Edmunds witch trials.

1666 Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September

Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.

Detail of the Great Fire of London by an
unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening
of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower
of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul’s Cathedral
in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.

1668-76 Outbreak of witch-hunts in Sweden.

1670 France- Rouen witch trials.

1674 Trial of Anne Foster in Northampton.

1679- 1682 The notorious Chanibre d’ardente affair: Louis XIV’s star chamber investigated
poison plots and heared evidence of widespread corruption and witchcraft.
More than 300 people were arrested and 36 executed. The affair ended with
a royal edict which denied the reality of witchcraft and sorcery.

1688 Salem, Massachusetts. – The behavior of several children in the home of the
Goodwin family in Boston results in the accusation, trial and execution of
their Irish washerwoman, Ann Glover (also known as “Goody Glover”),
for witchcraft.

1692 Between May and October, 19 people are tried and hanged as witches in Salem,
Massachusetts.