Proche-Orient à l’époque paléo-babylonienne.
Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. It includes the comparatively fertile
regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant, delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian
Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north. The region is often
considered the cradle of civilization, saw the development of many of the earliest
human civilizations, and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel.
countries with significant territory within the Fertile Crescent are Iraq, Jordan,
Lebanon, Syria, Israel and the Palestinian Territories, besides the southeastern
fringe of Turkey and the western fringe of Iran.
is located in north Mesopotamia
the earliest historical times, the term Assyria referred to a region on the Upper
Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. Later,
as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt
and much of Anatolia, the term “Assyria proper” referred to roughly
the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh
as its capital.
Assyrian homeland was located near a mountainous region, extending along the Tigris
as far as the high Gordiaean or Carduchian mountain range of Armenia, sometimes
known as the “Mountains of Ashur”.
Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history.
These are called the Old, Middle, and Neo-Assyrian kingdoms, or periods. The most
powerful and best-known nation of these periods is the Neo-Assyrian kingdom, 911-612
invented excavation to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock down walls
and gates, concept of a corps of engineers, who bridged rivers with pontoons or
provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming.
Assyrian land is rich and fertile, with growing fields found in every region.
Two large areas comprise the Assyrian breadbasket the Arbel plain and the Nineveh
plain. This is from where Assyria derives her strength, as it can feed a large
population of professionals and craftsman.
Ashur is the
religious capital of Assyria, and the centre for worship of the god Ashur and
the goddess Inanna. Ashur being the religious capital is also the reason for
its being the capital. Other large cities have more inhabitants and are better
situated strategically and easier to defend.
Ashur contains a large number of important religious buildings,
and a handful of palaces about 34 temples and 3 palaces.
Assyrian Region took its name from the city of Ashur.
is a beautiful city of wide boulevards, large squares, parks, and gardens walled
with 15 gates. The walls measure 12 km in circumference. Each gate is named after
a god. Aqueducts and canals lead water from sources in the hills.
has a religious centre devoted to Ishtar.
named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of
Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. The
earliest mention of Babylon can be found in a tablet of the reign of Sargon of
Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC.
two ethnic groups, the Sumerians and Akkadians, had dominated the region. An area
intensely irrigated, and strategically located for trade routes and commerce,
it was often under threat from outsiders throughout the region’s history.
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