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The Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchal government for the city of Rome and its territories from its founding. In Roman legend this took place in 753 BC by Romulus. The kingdom ended with the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BC and the establishment of the Roman republic.
In Roman legend, when the Greeks waged war against the city of Troy, the Trojan hero Aeneas sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded Lavinium. His son Iulus went on to found the city of Alba Longa. From Alba Longa's royal family came the twins Romulus and Remus, who went on to found the city of Rome in 753 BC.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
8th century BC
* 753 BC Traditional
date for the founding of Rome by Romulus; Rome as a kingdom
* 753/715 BC reign of Romulus
* 715/673 BC reign of Numa Pompilius: creation of the Roman senate and the priestly offices
7th century BC
* 673/642 BC reign
of Tullus Hostilius: building of the Curia Hostilia the senate-house
* 642/617 BC reign of Ancus Marcius
* 617/578 BC reign of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus: building of the Circus Maximus, Rome gets the first system of sewers
6th century BC
* 578/534 BC reign
of Servius Tullius: defined the sacred boundary of Rome - the pomerium; first
* 534/509 BC reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king: builds temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
* 509 BC Roman Republic begins: expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus: first consuls are Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus
* 508 BC The office of pontifex maximus (high priest) is created
5th century BC
* 496 BC Rome defeat
the Etruscans at the battle of Lake Regillus
* 494 BC Following the first Secession of the Plebs, two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time
* 459 BC The college of the tribune of the Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes
* 449 BC The Decemviri publish the Twelve Tables of Roman law
* 447 BC Assembly of the People created: two quaestors elected for the first time
* 445 BC - Marriage between patricians and plebeians allowed
* 443 BC
o The office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribune with consular powers, the Tribuni militum consulari potestate for this year.
o Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.
* 421 BC Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians
* 408 BC Consul replaced with Tribuni militum consulari potestate .
4th century BC
* 396 BC
o Rome captures and sacks the Etruscan city of Veii after a 10-year siege, the final assault was conducted by Marcus Furius Camillus
o Roman soldiers earn their first salary
* 394 BC Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate.
* 391 BC Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul.
* 390 BC The Gauls defeat the Roman army at the battle of the Allia; sack of Rome by the Gauls
* 375/371 BC Anarchy years: no magistrates elected
* 367 BC Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time.
* 366 BC
o Elected the first non-patrician consul: Lucius Sextius Sextinus
o Office of Praetor urbanus created
* 351 BC Elected the first non-patrician censor
* 343 BC Beginning of the First Samnite war
* 342 BC
o Battle of Mount Gaurus.
o Lex Genucia passed: no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election
* 341 BC Rome withdraws from the conflict with the Samnites. End of First Samnite war.
* 340 BC Rome enters the Latin War on the side of the Samnites.
* 338 BC End of the Latin War. Latin League dissolved, and territory placed under Roman control.
* 326 BC Second Samnite war begins.
* 321 BC Battle of the Caudine Forks.
* 316 BC Battle of Lautulae.
* 311 BC Etruscans join the Samnites against Rome.
* 310 BC Battle of Lake Vadimo between Rome and the Etruscans.
* 308 BC The Second Samnite war escalates when the Umbrians, Picentini, and Marsians join the war against Rome.
* 306 BC The Hernici revolt against Rome (Livy ix. 42).
* 305 BC Battle of Bovianum ends with Samnite defeat and the end of main Samnite resistance.
* 304 BC Aequi defeated.
* 304 BC End of the Second Samnite War. Rome establishes many new colonies and gains control over much of central and southern Italy.
* 300 BC Lex Ogulnia passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians
3rd century BC
* 298 BC Third
Samnite war begins
* 298 BC The Romans capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
* 297 BC Consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats the Samnites near Tifernum (Liv. 10.14).
* 295 BC Battle of Sentinum.
* 294 BC Samnite victory at Luceria.
* 293 BC Battle of Aquilonia.
* 291 BC The Romans storm the Samnite city of Venusia.
* 290 BC End of the third Samnite War.
* 283 BC Rome defeats the Etruscans and the Boii (a Gallic tribe) in the Battle of Lake Vadimo
* 281 BC - Mounting tensions between Rome and Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid.
* 280 BC
o Pyrrhus lands army in Italy. Beginning of the Pyrrhic War.
o Battle of Heraclea
* 279 BC Battle of Asculum.
* 275 Battle of Beneventum.
* 272 BC
o Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus, end of the Pyrrhic War.
o Tarentum surrenders to Rome.
* 267 BC Number of quaestors raised from 4 to 6
* 264/241 BC First Punic War against Carthage
* 242 BC - Office of Praetor peregrinus created
* 241 BC Following the defeat of Carthage, Sardinia and Corsica becomes the first Roman province
* 229 BC First Illyrian War begins.
* 227 BC
o First Illyrian War ends with the surrender of Queen Teuta.
o Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8; number of praetors raised from 2 to 4
* 224 BC Rome defeats invading Gallic army at the Battle of Telamon
* 223 BC Rome defeats Gauls in Cisalpine Gaul
* 220 BC Second Illyrian War begins.
* 219 BC Second Illyrian War ends.
* 218/201 BC Second Punic War against Carthage. Rome is defeated at the Battle of the River Trebia.
* 216 BC Hannibal inflicts a disaster for Rome at the Battle of Cannae
* 214/205 BC First Macedonian War, Romans defeated
* 213/211 BC Siege of Syracuse, Rome captures the city
* 204/202 BC Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa, Hannibal recalled and defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC
* 202/196 BC Second Macedonian War, Roman victory
2nd century BC
* 197 BC
o Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Tarraconensis become Roman provinces
o Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12; number of praetors raised from 4 to 6
* 192/189 BC Syrian war against the Seleucid dynasty
* 180 BC Lex Villia annalis: established minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices; determined an interval of two years between offices
* 172/167 BC Third Macedonian War, Roman victory
* 154/138 BC War against the Lusitanians
* 149/146 BC Third Punic War against Carthage
* 149/148 BC Fourth Macedonian War
* 149 BC A permanent extortion court is established by Lex Calpurnia
* 146 BC Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Scipio Africanus the Younger) puts an end to the Punic and Macedonian threat by destroying the cities of Carthage and Corinth; Macedonia and Africa are annexed as provinces
* 133 BC The tribune Tiberius Gracchus is murdered after approving an agrarian reform
* 121 BC
o Rome acquires the province of Transalpine Gaul (south of modern France) and a safe land route to Hispania
o The Senate approves the first Senatus consultum de re publica defenda to deal with the threat of violence started by tribune Gaius Gracchus
* 112 BC Jugurthine War against king Jughurta of Numidia begins.
* 107 BC
o Gaius Marius elected consul based on election promise to end the war in one year.
o Marian reforms of the Roman Legions put into effect.
* 106 BC
o Gaius Marius elected consul a second time, and in absentia, to continue the Jugurthine War.
* 105 BC
o Jugurthine War ends with the capture of Jughurta.
o The invading tribe of the Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army in the battle of Arausio
* 104/102 BC - Gaius Marius elected consul for three years in a row
* 102 BC - Consular armies under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons in the Battle of Aquae Sextiae
* 101 BC - Romans under Marius (proconsul) and Quintus Lutatius Catulus (consul) defeat the Cimbri in the Battle of Vercellae
* 100 BC
o Gaius Marius elected consul for a 6th time.
o Political scandal surrounding Lucius Appuleius Saturninus forces Gaius Marius to retire from public life.
1st century BC
* 91/88 BC Social
wars, the last rebellion of the Italian nations against Rome
* 88 BC Sulla crosses the pomerium with his legions and invades Rome
* 88/85 BC First Mithridatic War against Mithridates VI of Pontus
* 83/82 BC First Roman civil war, between Sulla and the popular faction; Sulla wins and becomes dictator; censor office abolished (to be recreated in 70 BC)
* 83/82 BC Second Mithridatic War; Sulla returns to Rome and is nominated dictator
* 82/72 BC Sertorius, the last Marian general continues the civil war in Hispania
* 74/66 BC Third Mithridatic War, eventually won by Pompey
* 67 BC Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates
* 63 BC
o Fall of Jerusalem
o consulship of Cicero; Catiline conspiracies
* 59/54 BC An informal coalition is formed by Ga-ius Ju-lius Caesar, Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus to govern the Roman republic. This coalition is often referred to as the First triumvirate, even though it did not have the official sanction of law required for a legal triumvirate.
* 58/50 BC Caesar fights the Gallic wars, acquiring the province of Gallia Comata
* 54/53 BC First campaign against the Parthian Empire; Crassus utterly defeated and killed
* 49 BC Caesar crosses the Rubicon (alea iacta est) and begins the Second Roman civil war against the Optimates, the conservative faction of the senate, led by Pompey
* 48/45 BC Caesar pursues and defeats the Optimates in Greece and Africa
* 44 BC Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March
* 44/42 BC Third Roman civil war, between the assassins of Caesar (led by Cassius and Brutus) and Caesar's heirs, Octavian and Mark Antony
* 43 BC Octavian, Antony and Lepidus form the second triumvirate
* 36 BC Antony's Parthian campaign ends in failure
* 32 BC End of peaceful relations between Octavian and Antony
* 31 BC In the battle of Actium, Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra
* 30 BC Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide; Egypt becomes a Roman province
* 27 BC End of the Republic, beginning of the Roman Empire: Octavian is now called Augustus Caesar and becomes the sole ruler of Rome
* 28/24 BC Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis
* 16/15 BC Augustus' campaigns against the Alpine tribes
* 12/7 BC Tiberius and Drusus conquer Pannonia and campaign against the Germanic tribes
* 5 Tiberius conquers
* 6 Judaea becomes a Roman province
* 6/9 Rebellions in Pannonia and Dalmatia suppressed by Germanicus
* 9 Three Roman legions are ambushed and massacred by the Germans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
* 11 Germania Inferior and the Rhine secured by Germanicus
* 14 Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor
* 14/15 Germanicus campaigns against the Germanic tribes
* 25 Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir
* 26 Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy
* 28 The tribe of the Frisii rebel because of taxes
* 31 The fall of Sejanus
* 37 Caligula becomes emperor
* 41 Claudius becomes emperor
* 43 Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain
* 54 Nero becomes emperor
* 58/63 Nero orders war then peace with Parthia. Armenia is secured.
* 60/61 Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain
* 64 Great Fire of Rome
* 66/74 Jewish rebellions in Judea
* 68 military coup leads to Nero's suicide end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; succeeded by Galba
* 69 Year of the four emperors: after the assassination of Galba, Otho and Vitellius briefly become emperors before Vespasian's accession to power in the end of the year; Flavian dynasty begins
* 69/70 Civilis leads the Batavian rebellion in Germania Inferior; defeated by Quintus Petillius Cerialis
* 71/84 Pacification of Britain, conquest of modern Wales and Scotland
o Titus becomes emperor
o August 24, An eruption of Vesuvius destroys much of Pompeii and Herculaneum
* 80 Rome partially destroyed by fire
* 81 Domitian becomes emperor
* 85 King Decebalus of Dacia rebels and invades Moesia
* 89 Rebellions in Germania Inferior and Pannonia force peace with Decebalus of Dacia
* 96 Domitian killed end of Flavian dynasty; succeeded by Nerva, the first of the Five good emperors
* 98 Trajan becomes emperor
* 101/102 First
* 105/106 Second Dacian War; king Decebalus commits suicide and Dacia becomes a province
* 106 Building of Trajan's Forum and construction of Trajan's column
* 113/117 Trajan's successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
* 115/117 Jewish rebellions in Egypt
* 117 Hadrian becomes emperor
* 121/125 Hadrian travels through the Northern Empire
* 122 construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
* 128/132 Hadrian travels through Africa and the Eastern Empire
* 131/135 - Jewish rebellions led by Simon bar Kokhba
* 138 Antoninus Pius becomes emperor
* 140/143 After a rebellion Antoninus conquers Scotland; construction of Antonine Wall begins
* 150/163 rebellions in Scotland, Antonine Wall is abandoned and reoccupied several times
* 161 Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor
* 162/166 Lucius Verus successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
* 167 The tribe of the Marcomanni crosses the Danube and invades Dacia
* 168/175 Marcus Aurelius' campaigns against the Marcomanni
* 180 Death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the Five good emperors; Commodus becomes emperor
* 184 Antonine Wall abandoned for the last time
* 193 Commodus is murdered. After the short two and a half month reign of Pertinax, Septimius Severus becomes emperor. There is opposition from first from Pescennius Niger, then from Clodius Albinus
* 197 Septimius Severus secures the empire after the battle of Lugdunum
* 198 Septimius Severus invades Parthia
* 208/211 Severus
campaigns against the Caledonians
* 211 Severus dies. His son Caracalla becomes emperor
* 217 Caracalla murdered; Macrinus becomes emperor
* 218 Elagabalus usurps the throne
* 222 Elagabalus is murdered. Alexander Severus becomes emperor
* 231-3 War against Persia
* 235 Alexander killed in a soldier mutiny. Maximinus Thrax becomes emperor.
* 238 After revolts in Africa and Rome, Gordian III becomes emperor.
* 241 Victory over the Persians at Resaina.
* 244 Romans defeated at Misiche. Philip the Arab becomes emperor.
* 249 Decius usurps the throne with support from the Danubian legions.
* 251 Decius defeated and slain by Cniva, king of the Goths. Gallus becomes emperor.
* 252 King Shapur I of Persia defeats the Romans at Barbalissos.
* 253 Valerian and his son Gallienus become emperors. Shapur captures Antioch.
* 257 Valerian retakes Antioch. The Franks invade Gaul and Iberia (Hispania). The Alemanni invades Italy but are defeated at Milan.
* 258 Goths invade Asia Minor
* 260 Valerian is taken captive by the Persians. Retreating Persian army attacked by Odaenathus of Palmyra. Postumus proclaimed emperor in Gaul. He is also supported in Iberia (Hispania) and Britain.
* 267 Odaenathus assassinated. His widow Zenobia takes control of Palmyra
* 268 Gallienus defeats Gothic invasion, but is later assassinated. Claudius II becomes emperor.
* 269 Postumus is killed. Victorinus proclaimed emperor in Gaul and Britain. The Palmyrenes takes Egypt and Syria. Claudius defeats the Goths at Naissus in Moesia.
* 270 Claudius dies of plague. Aurelian becomes emperor.
* 271 Aurelian campaigns against the Vandals, Juthungi and the Sarmatians. Victorinus is murdered and his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I emperor
* 272 Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa and takes Palmyra. Zenobia is captured. The province of Dacia is abandoned.
* 273 Palmyra revolts. The city is destroyed by Aurelian.
* 274 Aurelian defeats the army of Tericus at the Catalaunian fields.
* 275 Aurelian is murdered. Tacitus becomes emperor.
* 276 Tacitus dies. Probus becomes emperor.
* 277 The Burgundians, Longiones, Alemanni and Franks defeated.
* 279 Probus campaigns against the Vandals in Illyricum.
* 282 Carus proclaimed emperor. Probus killed by his own troops.
* 283 Carus dies during an invasion of Persia. His son Numerian becomes emperor.
* 284 Numerian dies. Diocletian becomes emperor.
* 285 Diocletian appoints Maximian co-emperor and assigns to him the western half.
* 286 Carausius revolts in Britain.
* 293 Diocletian appoints Constantius I and Galerius as caesars. Carausius murdered by Allectus who proclaims himself emperor.
* 296 Allectus defeated and slain.
* 299 Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and the Carpi
* 301 Diocletian
issues the Edict on Maximum Prices.
* 303 Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
* 305 Diocletian and Maximian abdicates. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west.
* 306 Constantius dies at York. His son Constantine I proclaimed emperor. Maxentius, son of Maximian, proclaims himself emperor in Rome.
* 307 Maxentius reinvest his father Maximian with the purple. Severus is put to death. Galerius lay siege to Rome.
* 308 Conference of Carnuntum. Diocletian convinces Maximian to step down. Licinius appointed Augustus.
* 310 Maximian again proclaims himself emperor, but is captured by Constantine. He commits suicide.
* 311 Galerius dies at Sardica. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them.
* 312 Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Licinius marries Constantine's sister Constantia. Constantine converts to Christianity.
o Licinus defeats Maximinus twice. Maximinus dies at Tarsus.
o Constantine issues Edict of Milan, ending persecution of Christians and establishing religious toleration throughout the Empire.
* 314 Constantine defeats Licinius at Cibalae
* 316 Diocletian dies.
* 317 Constantine defeats Licinius on the Campus Ardiensis. Licinius forced to cede all his European provinces except Thrace.
* 318 Excommunication of Arius.
* 324 Constantine defeats Licinius at the Hebrus River and at Chrysopolis. Licinius abdicates.
* 325 The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
* 326 Constantine orders the death of his oldest son, Crispus.
* 330 Constantine makes Constantinople the capital.
* 332 Constantine campaigns against the Goths.
* 334 Constantine campaigns against the Sarmatians.
* 337 Constantine dies at Nicomedia. His three sons, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans become emperors.
* 338 Constantine II defeats the Alemanni. War with Persia.
* 340 Constantine II invades Italy. He is ambushed and slain by Constans at Aquileia.
* 341 Constans and Constantius II issues a ban against pagan sacrifice.
* 347 The Donatists revolt in Africa.
* 348 Constantius defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.
* 350 Magnentius proclaims himself emperor in the west. Constans is captured and killed. Julius Nepotian attacks Rome with a band of gladiators
* 351 Constantius appoints his cousin Constantius Gallus as Caesar. Magnentius is defeated at Mursa.
* 353 Constantius defeats Magnentius at Mons Seleuci. Magnentius commits suicide.
* 354 Gallus is put to death.
* 355 Julian is appointed Caesar in Gaul.
* 357 Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg.
* 360 With a Persian war imminent, Constantius orders Julian to send several legions east. The troops mutinies and proclaims Julian Augustus.
* 361 Constantius dies of illness, naming Julian his successor. Julian openly declares himself a pagan, but his attempt at creating a pagan rejuvinal leads to nought.
* 363 Julian invades Persia, but forced to retreat, he is mortally wounded during a skirmish. the soldiers hail Jovian as emperor.
* 378 Valens is defeated and killed by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople.
* 395 Theodosius I divided the empire into two halves.
* 410 Rome is sacked
by Alaric I
* 447 Eastern Rome loses to Attila the Hun
* 452 Attila the Hun is turned away from Rome by Pope Leo I.
* 455 Rome is plundered by the Vandals
* 457 Majorian becomes western emperor.
* 461 Majorian is deposed by the magister militum Ricimer. Libius Severus becomes western emperor.
* 465 Libius Severus dies possibly poisoned by Ricimer.
* 467 Anthemius becomes western emperor with the support of Leo I.
* 468 War against the Vandals by the joint forces of both empires. Naval expedition ends in failure.
o Ricimer kills Anthemius and makes Olybrius new western emperor.
o Both Ricimer and Olybrius dies of natural causes. Gundobad becomes magister militum in Italy.
* 473 Gundobad makes Glycerius new western emperor.
o Gundobad leaves Italy to take part in a succession struggle among the Burgundians.
o Glycerius deposed by Julius Nepos who proclaims himself western emperor.
* 475 Julius Nepos forced to flee to Dalmatia by his magister militum Orestes. Orestes proclaims his own son Romulus Augustus western emperor.
* 476 Germanic general Odoacer kills Orestes, forces Romulus Augustus to abdicate and proclaims himself King of Italy. Traditional date for the fall of the western Roman Empire.
* 480 Julius Nepos, still claiming to be emperor, is killed in Dalmatia. De jure end of the western Roman Empire.
6th century and beyond
* 533 Justinian
I begins to restore the empire in the west; Belisarius defeats the Vandals at
the Battle of Ad Decimum and the Battle of Ticameron
* 536 Belisarius recaptures Rome from the Ostrogoths
* 552 Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae
* 553 Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Mons Lactarius
* 568 The Lombards invade Italy; no further attempts to restore the empire
* 607 Emperor Phocas donates The Pantheon to the Pope and has a column erected in the Forum.
* 663 Constans II is the last emperor to visit Rome, and the city gradually slips out of imperial control.
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