(3300 – 2100 BC) Early Bronze Age
3200: a writing system was developed in order to keep administrative records; it was called cuneiform and was made up of pictograms (pictures) describing objects and ideograms describing ideas or actions.
The invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom.
2800 Etana became the first Sumerian monarch and established the Kish dynasty; he put northern Mesopotamia under his control, built the first monumental building as his palace, and called himself king of the “four quarters of the world”; Meskiaggasher established the Uruk dynasty and controlled most of the south.
2800-2670 BC: the Kish dynasty established a powerful kingship and because it was situated at a critical spot on the Euphrates river it controlled irrigation flow to the southern city-states and thus kept the Uruk dynasty, in the south, under control.
2900 BC: because the city-states were at constant war, they needed a strong military leader to oversee war and large building projects; they began to replace theocracies with hereditary monarchies and according to ancient tablets, “the kingship came down from heaven.”
2700 BC: Gilgamesh, grandson of Enmerkar, became king of Uruk; he constructed the brick walls around Uruk and his deeds formed the basis of the Gilgamesh Epic; Enmebaragesi became king of Kish, he ordered the construction of the Temple of Enlil at Nippur, which became the spiritual center of Sumer, and he led victorious campaigns against Elam.
2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid
2670 years ago. Mesanepada established the Ur dynasty; he defeated Agga, king of Kish, which ended the Kish dynasty, and put the Uruk and Ur dynasties simultaneously in power.
2670-2370 years ago. the Uruk dynasty became weak from constant attacks in the north which only strengthened the power of the Ur dynasty in the south.
2613 – Nephren-Ka, a truly foul pharaoh, rises to power in Third Dynasty Egypt. He revives the worship of dark gods such as Nyarlat, whom he renames Nyarlathotep. He also finds the Shining Trapezohedron and builds a temple around it. The pharaoh Snefru overthrows Nephren-Ka, and his name is utterly erased from Egyptian history. However, the dark religions he rediscovered are not forgotten again. (; “Fane of the Black Pharaoh,” Bloch)
Nephren-Ka and his followers flee to the underground catacombs of Kish, where Nephren-Ka sacrifices a hundred victims to Nyarlathotep. In exchange, Nephren-Ka is given the gift of prophecy, and he spends the rest of his days drawing the future of the Earth on the walls of his tomb. (“Fane of the Black Pharaoh,” Bloch)
2600 years ago. Bactrian Camel and Dromedary are domesticated
2600 years ago. Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza
2525 years ago. Lugalannemudu of Adab, a city in the north, united northern Sumer under his control; his power quickly passed to Mesilim, king of Kish; these conquests by the northern city-states ended the Uruk dynasty and put the Ur dynasty in complete power.
2425 years ago. Eannatum established the Lagash dynasty; he united Sumer under his control, called himself king of Kish, and conquered much neighboring territory.
2370 years ago. Urukagina of became king of Lagash; he enacted many social reforms and during his reign Lugalzagesi, king of Umma, defeated him and took control of Sumer, which went into a state of civil strife.
2350 years ago. Sargon I, a Kish general, usurped and became king of Kish; he defeated Lugalzagesi and took control of Sumer, built his capital at Akkad and established the Akkadian dynasty, he centralized trade, made his daughter priestess of Ur, repaired the irrigation systems, and created the first professional army of 5400 men.
2250 years ago. Manituu, son of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he defeated “32 cities in Iran,” the Elamites, and the many other city-states which tested his military strength.
2240 years ago. Akkad, capital of the Akkadian Empire, becomes the largest city in the world, surpassing Memphis, capital of Egypt.
2230 – years ago. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon I, became king of Akkad; he extended the empire to “the four quarters of the world” and was the first king to deify himself.
2218 – years ago. the Gutians, a group of nomadic peoples east of Mesopotamia, swept through Mesopotamia, destroyed Akkad, and conquered Sumer; in the ancient writings Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin angered the god Enlil, who made the Gutians attack.
2200 – Queen Nitocris, the Ghoul-Queen, rises to power in Sixth Dynasty Egypt. She revives the worship of Nyarlathotep once more, and uncovers the Shining Trapezohedron. She engages in many unspeakable acts during her reign, weakening her nation sufficiently to usher in the First Intermediate Period of Egyptian history. She leaves behind an artifact known as the Mirror of Nitocris.
2150 – The Black Pharaoh, sometimes called Khotep, lives at the end of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt
2149 – Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
2160 – Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe
2144 – Gudea became king of Lagash; despite Gutian rule of Sumer he took control of southern Mesopotamia, encouraged literature, and initiated religious constructions; after his death he was deified and many magnificent statues were produced in his honor.
2130 – years ago. Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor
2134 years ago. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I
2120 years ago. Utuhegal became king of Uruk; he and his general, Ur-Nammu, defeated the Gutians and drove them from Sumer; Utuhegal rewarded Ur-Nammu by making him governor of Ur.
2113: Ur-Nammu established the 3rd Ur dynasty and declared himself king of Sumer and Akkad; he defeated Utuhegal, king of Uruk, and Nammahani, king of Lagash, united Sumer under his rule, constructed many temples, and established the first code of laws which emphasized the king’s duty to protect the people against injustice.
(2100 – 1550 BC) Middle Bronze Age
2095 – Shulgi succeeded his father Ur-Nammu as king of Ur; during his reign their was a drastic water shortage, he reorganized irrigation systems and encouraged economic records on clay tablets.
2004: the Elamites, a group of nomadic peoples in the north, invaded Sumer; they destroyed Ur, captured Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur, ended the 3rd Ur Dynasty, and sent Sumer into civil strife; regular imports of tin from Britain began to go throughout Europe and the Middle East, making the use of bronze to make tools and weapons possible.
2000 – Babylon’s Code of Hammurabi instructs, “If a man has laid a charge of witchcraft and has not justified it, he upon whom the witchcraft is laid shall go to the holy river; he shall plunge into the holy river and if the holy river overcome him, he who accused him shall take to himself his house.”
1900: the Amorites, a group of nomadic peoples from Syria encouraged by the internal strife, invaded and conquered Sumer; they intermingled with the Sumerians and obtained many high positions, including becoming kings of cities, the most powerful being the Isin dynasty.
1894: Sumu-abum, an Amorite, conquered a small portion of land in middle Mesopotamia; he built up the small village of Babylon and there ruled as king.
1823 BC: Rim-Sin, an Amorite, became king of Larsa; he conquered Isin, ending its reign of power, and united Sumer under the rule of the Larsa dynasty.
1792 BC: Hammurabi, an Amorite, became king of Babylon; he defeated Rim-Sin, conquered Mesopotamia, and established the Babylon Dynasty; he oversaw navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, construction, cleared block rivers, punished dishonest officials, reformed the calendar, and codified the Sumerian laws in the Code of Hammurabi with its primary idea, “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.”
1750 BC: Samsu-iluna succeeded his father Hammurabi as king of Babylon; he defeated the first invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites, a group of nomadic peoples from the east.
1645 Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt.
1628 Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt
1595 the Hittites swept through Babylonia, took prisoners, and looted wealth; they brought with them the use of iron, which was used to make spears and battle axes; the Kassites proceeded the Hittites, conquered Babylonia, and established the Kassite dynasty.
1570 BC: Agum, a Kassite, became king of Babylonia; he reconquered lost lands and extended his control over all Mesopotamia.
(1550 – 1200) Late Bronze Age
(c.1480 BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving tribute from the Danaioi)
(Tudhaliya II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440)
1400 – Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt.
1386 – Dionysus known as Tauro Kranos restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers Damascus and all of India.
(Amenhotep III reigns in Egypt from 1386-1349 and refers to Greek cities such including Amyclae in his records, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400, Tudhaliya III rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.)
1336 Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Phthia and his brothers
1323 Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.
(Mursilis II king of the Hittites dies in 1315 BC)
1225 Tukulti-Ninurta I, king of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, captured Babylon and extended his rule through northern Mesopotamia; although the Kassite dynasty continued to rule, it was only nominal.
1140 Shutruk-Nahhunte I, king of Elam, captured Babylon; he ended the Kassite dynasty and placed his son Shilhak-Inshushinak on the throne; he encouraged sculpture and literature.