In the more advanced city-states warfare centres mainly around heavy infantrymen called hoplites.They are a citizen-militia, and so are armed as spearmen, which are relatively easy to equip and maintain; mainly they represented the middle class, who can afford the cost of the armaments. Almost all the famous men of the Hellas, even the philosophers and playwrights,have fought as hoplites at some point in their lives.
Hoplites generally armed themselves immediately before battle, since the equipment is so heavy. Each man provides his own gear so it is fairly non-uniform, and often friendly troops will fail to recognise one another. A hoplite typically had a breastplate, a bronze helmet with cheekplates, as well as greaves and other armor, plus a bowl-shaped wooden shield called an aspis which was around 1 metre across. The primary weapon is a long spear as is frequently broke upon charging and is unwieldy for close combat, hoplites also carry a thrusting short sword called a xiphos
Information used with Permission from Pindar
As seen Pindar's site Heroic Greece
The armed forces of Greece are the elite soldiers of the world and the Spartan Hoplite is the elite soldier of Greece. The standard Greek soldier knows himself to be the best there is and they have unparalleled morale. Greek weapons are made of iron but armour is made of bronze or leather.
* Light Infantry
Armed with a shield and a Spear.
They were a lot faster than Hoplites and could quickly change formation, however there speed was little advantage in a pitched battle
Armed with helmet, shield, bronze breastplate, greaves, short sword and spear.
They fought in close phalanx formations and were especially effective in defensive fighting.
Armed with slings, javelins and short swords.
They fought ranked behind the Hoplite formations.
Hellenistic Illyrian cavarlyman from Dalmatia,(The sketch was part of a
study for a publication but the project has been cancelled) Sketch made by David
Armed with a helmet, shield,
leather breastplate and a Sabre.
They were fast and dangerous in a charge but as they lacked saddles Hoplites could be a major threat to cavalry once they lost the impetus of the charge.
Whereas warships are always rowed galleys are sailing ships. Large merchant vessels typical of those used by Athens are about 100 feet in length and 16 feet wide they rely on sail for power but have steering oars for docking and manoeuvring. Crewed by 5 officers and 23 deck crew plus a helmsman and a lookout.
Constantine Volanakis (18371907) Argo
The standard Trireme is
120 feet from prow to stern, and about 12 feet between the gunwales. The ship
has a very shallow draft, with about eight to ten feet between the keel and
the top deck. There are small top decks fore and aft and a strip of deck that
runs down the centre of the ship.
Each side of the ship has three banks of oarsmen, each man with his own bench and his own oar. Two banks are within the ships hull, the lowest bank of oarsmen (the thalamites) sit just above the water line, and are protected from the sea by a leather seal around the oarlock.
The middle rank (the zigites)
are staggered above and behind these.
The top rank (the thranites)
sit level with the top deck and are partially exposed to the elements and enemy
fire. Their oars are at a steeper angle and are harder to row, as a result the
thranites are paid more.
The Trireme has one mainmast,
rigged amidships, which can be unstepped. The sail is large and square and is
never used in battle. Often the mast and sail are put ashore before battle is
Triremes are crewed by 170 oarsmen, a deckcrew of 24 (including sailors and carpenters), 5 officers and the Captain. A marine force of 10 Hoplites was also carried. The main weapon of the Trireme was its huge bronze ram.
Created By Zyxw59
Date Created: 5/31
A trireme is rowed by 170 rowers on three decks, 62 on the top deck, and 54 on each of the lower two decks. It also has two sails. When rowed, the rowers can row for one hour, and then rest for half of an hour. When sailing and rowing, rowers can row for an hour and a half and then rest for half of an hour.
* Hit Points: 150
* Cost: 1500gp
Table: Trireme speeds
Rowed or sailed Cargo1
Light cargo Medium cargo Heavy cargo
Rowed 4.5 mph (4 knots) 4 mph (3.5 knots) 3.5 mph (3 knots)
Sailed 4 mph (3.5 knots) 4 mph (3.5 knots) 3.5 mph (3 knots)
Rowed and sailed 5 mph (4.5 knots) 4.5 mph (4 knots) 4mph (3.5 knots)
1. Light, medium, and heavy loads are determined by the total carrying capacity of the rowers. The sail is treated as having a Strength score of 63.
Table: Trireme attacks
Speed (mph) Attack Bonus
3.5 +7 3d6+7
4 +8 4d6+8
4.5 +9 4d6+9
5 +10 5d6+10
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